Page 137                    1839

October 5th  Saturday

Went to Newcastle in the afternoon with Mrs G. Miss G. and Miss B.-to the Turk’s head-next day at noon went on board the John Wood Steamer lying in the Tyne and bound for Hamburg and set sail but had got no further than the village of Walker, when we stuck fast on a sand bank, partly from bad management, the heavy freight of the ship and the disgraceful state of the river; they were obliged to lighten the ship and wait for the next tide, during the afternoon we walked on shore.  Got off the bank at 3 next morning, ran down to Shields where we were obliged to stay to take in the cargo which had been taken out, and crossed the bar at noon of the 7th , the sea was very smooth at first, but at night and further out at sea a heavy side sea came on which made the girls very sick, which continued all the next day and night yet the weather was as fine as possible.

9th  at 4 P.M. made the Island of Hiligoland a bare rock with steep brown shores, and a few houses; belonging to England where we keep a Garrison, during the evening we passed the light ship anchored at sea, where pilots are taken in, and lay all night at Newark lights, a low sand island, at 6 A.M, weighed and passed near Cuxhaven a sea port town in Hanover but belonging to Hamburg, for a time we could not see the north bank of the Elbe, but after passing Glukstad a Danish town, the banks on both sides especially the Danish are very green and pretty, on the Hanoverian, the number of tall spires is very great, about ?Weedel and Altona some distance below

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Hamburg, the banks are most beautifully wild, ornamented with woods, Gentleman’s seats, pleasure grounds and pretty cottages.  Near the town the crowd of shipping from all parts of the world is very great, but there is no Quay wall, all are made fast to strong piles in the river, which is still at this distance (of about 70 miles from the sea) more than half a mile across, the town from the river looks very old and irregular, in many parts the upper stories of the house projects over the lower and a canal runs underneath, which neither seems calculated to promote comfort nor health. October 10th  Landed in Hamburg at 4 P.M. went to Hotel de Russe, which we found exceedingly comfortable and kept by very civil people called Wiedermann 11th  Called on Messers ?Grassermann who were very civil and kind but their families were out of town at the time, so we did not visit them, after having got German money and a lesson in the same, which is very difficult for a stranger, and having procured a passport from Mr Canning the English Consul, we walked about the outskirts of the town which are very beautiful the ramparts and fosses having been turned into walks and pleasure grounds, we had a row on the lake which is formed by daming up the river Allester.  In the botanical gardens and nurseries the collection of shrubs and flowers, especially of dalias is very choice; we dined at table d’hote at 4, at half past six went to the Opera, a good sized house with little ornament or shew, and a tolerable company who performed a German Opera which was very pretty.  The parts of the town near the Allester and the promenades is new and the houses large and good, but in most parts very old, the

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houses standing with their ends to the streets which are narrow and generally without flagging at the sides but there seems to be a great deal of bustle and business going on, this being a protestant town the Churches do not shew much beauty either without or within, but that of St …… higher than St Paul’s in London or the Cathedral in Antwerp, from the Spire of which the view is very extensive, and tho’ the surrounding country is flat it is rather pretty from the quantity of wood and the numbers of spires in the distance in Hanover.  By the help of Mr C. Graseman I bought an old carriage which held us all four inside and our luggage outside which in posting we found a very great convenience, preventing the necessity of removing at every stage the luggage from one carriage to another, most of which are also very bad in the country. Oct 13th  Left Hamburg at 6 A.M. with two post horses, but at the next stage were obliged to add a third the roads through a part of Hanover and Denmark being very sandy and bad and kept so by the King of Denmark to induce people to go by the Sound for which he gets tolls; we travelled all day after leaving Denmark, through the Dutchy of Mecklenberg, a bare moorish, peat and scotch fir country growing a good deal of corn and with very bad black and white cattle, we put up at night at a very tolerable Inn at Ludwicks Lust, where they gave us a very good “souper” and comfortable clean beds but no one could speak a word of English or French which at first we felt a little awkward; we started in the morning after having our coach wheels “smeared” and entered Warmen the first town in Prussia where

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we were detained for an hour to have our things searched, and passports examined, which was done with exactness but very civilly, here I paid for the horses though all the stages to Berlin which was a great convenience leaving nothing to pay on the road but postboys-Toll gates, hostlers etc are included in the postmasters’ charge which is all managed by government and every one connected with it wear the Prussian uniform dark blue turned up with red and jack boots.  Had we known it would have been better to have come on to this place the previous evening and have had our search before starting in the morning, which would have saved time;  After this the country improved very much by Perleberg, Kysitz etc something like the south of England with large open fields and good wood; and wide tracts of corn all looking very flourishing a great deal of the land is very thin and much of it quite a sand, which looks as if it would grow nothing, but the contrary seems to be the case, during our first days journey the horses were very slight and bad; but in Prussia they are a better race, chiefly black, and go very well, we made about seven miles an hour and by going early and late and few stops we could post about a hundred miles a day the roads in this country being as good as one could wish, they are also in the hands of government, regulations of every sort are as good as anything I ever saw, there is tarife for everything and I never was in a foreign country where a stranger is so little imposed upon, the people seem very contented and well off, are respectable and quiet.  The

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roads for a whole days march are bordered by large Poplar trees which give a shaded and pleasant aspect to the line, the country is not thickly peopled, and the inhabitants seem to collect into small Villages, we reached Berlin late at night and were much struck with the splendid gateway by which we entered and with the width of the streets and great buildings by the lamplight which is very brilliant; we drove to the Stadt Rom the first Hotel which we found full but got very good accomodation in Stadt Europe, quite a foreign house with double windows and stoves in all the rooms and a most beautiful Table d’hote room, where we met a numerous party every day at dinner. Oct 15th  We started with a Valet de Place to see the town which is the newest and in buildings the finest I ever saw, there are no bad or dirty streets in the whole town, which so much destroy the beauty of Paris; nothing can surpass that part where so many great and beautiful buildings are situated, between the Palace Schloss and the Brandenberg Gate; the most striking are the Colossal Palace, the Collonnade of the New Museum, the Guard House; the Italian Opera, and University opposite, besides the Arsenal which is reckoned the finest specimine of art, and the Academy of Arts may almost all be seen from one spot, and Two Churches and a Theatre in Gendarmes Platz are in the immediate neighbourhood; Most of these buildings are seen from the street called Unter den Linden, named from a double row of fine Lime trees on each side of which there is a wide carriage drive and

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which is the most fashionable resort in Berlin; I think there is nothing in Paris to surpass the toute ensemble, terminated at the further end by the Brandenberg Gate, probably the finest in Europe (except perhaps the Triumphal Arch at Paris) it is surmounted by the Car of Victory, in which the Godess of War is driving three spirited black horses, all in bronze, this was carried to Paris by Napoleon, but after the Battle of Waterloo was restored. On the long Bridge is a bronze statue (equestrian) of the Great Elector Frederick ?Willieum/Willheim; and opposite the Grand Guard House is placed a very spirited figure of Blucher and facing him on each side of the Guard, are statues of Generals Bulow, Von ?Deunewitz And Scharnhorst, the latter was the establisher of the present excellent military system of Prussia; in a Square near the Potsdam gate are Statues of Six heroes of the Seven Years’ War whose names are not familiar to me.  The Great Palace of the King  is only used on State occasions, and to hold Levees in etc, it is very richly decorated with gold, silver and tapestry and also with many paintings of the Prussian and other Royal families of Europe.  In the Museum the Collection of birds is large and well arranged, the ancient Museum of relics of “pots and pans”  from Herculaneum and Pompeii is worth notice; the picture gallery is very extensive indeed, the entrance is through a Circular Hall in which stands a large basin of green Malacite on a pedestal of the same, sent

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from Russia, the collection of paintings is rather mixed, but many of them are of the old school, in another part of the building are several galleries of statues arranged very tastefully, the floors and two rows of pillars in each are of composition in imitation of marble, the colour in each gallery is different, the pedestals of the statues are all of marble, the effect altogether is very fine; in other parts there are collections of old china, painted windows etc etc; in the open Platz in front of this building is the finest basin I ever saw of polished red granite 22 feet in diameter standing on a massive base in the form of a flight of steps.  In the evening we went to the Opera, the House is not large, but the Company was excellent and the Orchestra very splendid, the house was well and respectably filled, next day we took a very pleasant drive through the park or rather wood, passing several pretty Cottages and Caffees, for five miles to the favorite palace of the King at Charlottenburg, built by Frederick the Great, the gardens are more remarkable than the Palace and are very beautiful, owing to the mixture of wood and water, the river Spree winding and sporting itself in several directions, some parts are crossed by gratings for the purpose of confining the Carp, which are of great size, as long and more than twice as thick as the largest salmon I ever saw, they were very tame and on a bell being rung would flock to every part To be fed by visitors, as fishes cannot hear I am at a loss to explain how they answered to the call of the bell, they were of a dull Slate

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color (cross checked on the sides) and had enormous mouths; in the grounds there is a pretty little Theatre in which the Berlin Company usually perform once or twice a week during Summer, there is also a very pretty Italian Chateau built after the pattern of one the King lived in when in Italy.  At the extremity of a Shady walk in a neat Temple lies the Statue of the late Queen Louisa who died very early and was exceedingly beloved by the King and her Subjects, she was of the Russian Royal Family; the statue is placed on a white marble sarcophagus, in a simple and easy reclining position, covered except the face and neck by beautifully worked drapery, all is of spotless white marble and very beautiful, the only fault which can be found is that it is larger than life which tends to take from the delicate appearance of the figure; this is considered the chef d’oeuvre of Rauch;-In the Palace there is a most extraordinary and noisy instrument, a combination of drums, Gongs, Cymbals pipes etc which is started by touching a spring; when Napoleon was sleeping in the Palace in an adjoining room, some of his officers while rummaging about fell foul of this, and in a moment produced such a noise, that the Emperor was awoke in great alarm and his guards were panic struck, thinking that a whole army were marching up to the Palace.  In Berlin we saw the magazine of Berlin Iron Work, many of the delicately worked specimines are most curious and pretty, ladies are very apt to buy extensively, as well as of the

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Berlin Cernvajs?canvass? For Worsted works with which many of the shop windows are decorated. We drove a short way out of town to see the Black Iron Monument, erected to commemorate the Victories in the late war, it is very high with many spires rising from the projecting corners and around it are placed statues of the commanders who distinguished themselves at the several engagements, the names of which are printed in large characters over their heads, I observed a son of General Bourmond who was living in the Hotel with us examining it very attentively.  Near this are the Tivoli gardens and a Montagne de Russe where the towns people amuse themselves with sliding down. 17th  Left Berlin at 7 AM by Post; the railway being so short it was neither a saving of time nor expense to make use of it, and the carriage road is much prettier to Potsdam, the country is generally bare and uninteresting, except about half way there is a very pretty lake formed by an expansion of the river ?Hamel/Havel it is richly wooded we reached Potsdam at 10, had breakfast and started with a Domestique de Place, we first saw the Palace of the King which is not remarkable except for its extent and for having been the residence of Frederick the Great who is almost worshiped in Prussia, his chair, table, bed etc are all enclosed by rails to prevent their being injured; We next drove to see a small Palace at Some distance, in itself it was nothing but the Views from the windows were very beautiful it is situated in extensive gardens, and you look over a pretty lake and wooded banks towards the Peacock

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Island where you see the white sails of boats shining in the distance; in Summer the Peacock Island is extremely pretty it was manufactured by the King and is a favorite retreat, a sort of “Virginia Water”.  We passed by the Russian Colony where a number of houses built of logs and carved wood are inhabited by Russians, they have gardens alotted to each and a Church built in the same style; next we visited “Sanssouci” a favorite Palace of Great Frederick who died there, there are extensive gardens and near the Palace are buried the horse and favorite Hounds of the King who ordered in his will that he should be buried among them, but this was not attended to, as he was placed in a great iron tomb above ground in the Church of the Garrison in Potsdam which we visited and over which hang several flags and the French eagles taken by the Prussians from Napoleon, probably to pay him off for having carried away the great sword of Frederick which lay on his tomb, and was never found.  At Sanssouci there is also a very extensive collection of paintings, which are highly estimated but not very fit for the inspection of ladies, from this a broad drive through wooded grounds leads to the New Palace about a mile distant, it is very ugly built of red brick with white marble corners and cornices it is very large, said to contain 200 apartments we were not able to see the interior as the King and family were at the time at dinner, at this time it was 1 o’clock, every one keeps very early hours, during summer 6 o’clock is the usual breakfast hour and they seem to retire very

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early at night, the Opera is generally concluded soon after 9 o’clock, commencing at 6. In the grounds surrounding the Palace are the Chateaux and Palaces of numberless Princes, in Chinese, Italian and all sorts of styles, some more like green houses than dwelling houses: in Potsdam the Streets are very good, well paved and the houses large and well built, we found a very good Hotel in the Stad Bouviere. 18th  Left at 5 AM. For Dresden passing a very poor country without enclosures or wood except a fine row of poplar or acacia trees on each side of the road which is very well kept, we dined at Hertzberg on the river G?….(blank) …., drank tea at Elsterwarda and soon after crossed the frontier into Saxony, we passed a little town Grossenhagn/hayn?  which was a hunting seat of Many of the Saxon Princes at Hani?/Hami we passed a pretty wooded lake on the banks stood a large Chateau, we entered Dresden by a beautiful moon light at 2 AM. and staid at Hotel de Berlin which we found very clean and good.  Next morning as we did not start early we saw little, all public sights being closed at 1 PM.   We took a long walk to see a palace belonging to the King but not occupied, it is of a very curious low stile with ponds and wooded grounds, the town is very old but well paved and lighted, but after the shining new appearance of Berlin it looks dull and heavy; after dinner we saw the Armory which is a great collection of mounted statues clad in suits of armour worn by the different Kings Princes etc, there are two very long rows and looks quite like a regiment of ancient soldiers the trappings of many of the horses was very rich set with all sorts of valuable stones pearls etc

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It is said to be the most splendid collection of ancient armour existing, the new and useful armoury is not nearly so large as that in the Tower, The Bridge crossing the Elbe is rather fine, it is very strongly built of stone and is said to be the longest in the north of Europe.  The Catholic Church which is attended by the Court (which is Catholic altho’ the country is not) is near the bridge, very heavily ornamented, but does not look well, the music during high Mass is unusually fine, it is conducted by the leader of the band at the Opera, which we also visited and found it much surpassing our understanding it is reckoned the finest band in Germany, but the house is old and bad, albeit there is a very handsome new one in progress. Oct 20th  We left early in a carriage and pair and drove by a Palace of the King called Peilnitz??? built in Chinese Style, the walls painted, it is very extensive and straggling but very poor looking when viewed closely, the court only resides there during Summer, at present the King is at a Pavilion which we saw in a Vineyard on a hill side to which there is no carriage drive, a little before this we crossed the Elbe in a ferry the north side is very pretty and wild and studded with nice houses, we then went on to Saxon Switzerland, by a Village called Thonen/Thomen, a little further on at a farm place we left the carriage to go another way and walked for a great way along the windings of a deep and wooded valley, from the bottom of which you can scarcely see the sky from between the perpendicular and lofty rocks between which you walk, we after some time reached

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the Baster;?Bastion  the view here surpasses anything I ever saw, it is very strange and peculiar on one side are deep rocky glens with gigantic pillars and rocks standing up and projecting and the tops of splendid spruce firs waving several hundred feet below your feet; on the other side the view is less bewildering but very bold and beautiful you stand on a projecting rock and look down for almost 900 feet into the bed of the Elbe which winds about in a wonderful way among rugged and wooded banks, with here and there a boat skimming on a heavy raft of wood dropping down with the current; out of the moderately level ground beyond the river rise two very peculiar cheese shaped hills, almost inaccessible by nature, formed of rugged rocks and crowned with wood, they are called Lilienstein and Konigstein, the latter has been formed into a fortress which from its natural strength has never yet been taken its height is about 1200 feet above the level of the river and forms a most striking picture, in the background you see the wild mountains extending to a great distance, altogether it is the most splendid view I have ever witnessed and very far surpasses every thing I have seen on the Rhine, we then picked up the Carriage and returned to Dresden. Next morning we saw the Picture gallery a large heavy looking stone building facing the Market place, except on certain days the Public are admitted gratis, there are many apartements filled with paintings which seem to be entirely old masters, it is thought the finest collection north of the Alps, several by Raphael and Carregio struck

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me as being peculiarly fine; but on the whole I fancied the rooms rather dull and too high to see conveniently; I should not omit to notice a painting in the front room called the “Madonna di Jeni/San/Semi? Sisto??” the Gem of the Dresden Gallery, which was one of the last and perhaps the most exquisite of all Raphaels undertakings.  Next we saw the gem Vaults, which is an immense collection of gems, pearls, precious stones and all sorts of minute works of art, such as carving in ivory, and figures and groups richly worked in metal etc etc; this dazzling collection which at first sight strikes one more as an assortment of glittering baubles, but on further inspection is found most interesting, is the most valuable thing of the sort in existence, and was collected by the Saxon Kings when they ranked among the most wealthy monarchs in Europe, the Value of this hoard of wealth is computed at several millions, the sale of it has frequently been advised, but the pride of the ancient Saxon Court cannot be brought to part with such an heir loom.  It is divided into eight apartments, each appropriated to different things, one to works in cut rock crystals; another works in bronze; in ivory; mosaic works etc; gold and silver plate which had been used to adorn the Saxon palaces; great collections of Vessels half formed of precious stones; carvings in wood etc; and the regalia used at the coronation Aust?/Gust? 2nd King of Poland; the most valuable apartment is the last, which is divided into six departments, the value of the two last it is said would pay off the whole of the National debt of Saxony, they contain the Coronation and

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Gala dresses of the Electors, in one of which the sword hilt, belt, collars etc etc are composed of diamonds; after dining at the table d’hote which is usually at 1 PM we went to see the galleries of antiquities which are very pretty with beautifully painted ceilings, and contain a great number of statues ancient and modern, and antiquities of various sorts; also a collection of China from all countries as well as their own production; but this is not generally interesting; we then saw the palace of the king which on the whole is much poorer than most gentlemans country seats in England, the ancient rooms which have not been altered since they were occupied by August the Strong have been very splendid, hung with crimson velvet and done up with gold and silver but they are quite in a state of decay.  On the whole the streets of Dresden are good and well kept and the houses high and good but of a dull and heavy appearance. 22nd   We sent the carriage with all the luggage to the railway at 5  and a half AM,  and followed ourselves in an open carriage an hour later and took our seats in a railway carriage and started, but soon found that our own carriage did not follow from some mistake of the Clerks, we passed through a flat and uninteresting country, leaving some small towns (one, Hirsch) with a Castle formerly belonging to the Electors now used as a manufactory of Dresden China, it stands on a wooded eminence and looks well,  The line of railway seemed very good and we went well except that there were many stops and we frequently were obliged to go slowly along newly made embankments which being composed of sand require some time to become quite firm, we reached Leipzig at 11AM, in 4 hours a distance of 60 miles English and the Charge was very moderate, we went to Hotel de Bouviere and dined at a very large Table d’Hote at 1 PM at

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which most of the people seemed to be merchants and in great haste to get again to business, the whole town looks like business, the old streets are seen nearly filled with wagons and carts, and great bales of goods and littered with straw, and most of the houses seem very ancient with small windows of carved stone and most of them have an extensive court within and large folding doors as if for the purpose of containing and removing merchandise; the fair of Leipzig was held shortly before we reached which is the greatest in Europe for Cloths, books etc etc, and is attended by all the Jews on the Continent: in the afternoon we walked out to see the out skirts of the town where the battles were fought during Napoleon’s retreat and where so great a number of his troops perished in attempting to swim the river Elester among whom was the Prince Poniatovskey whose body was found and buried in an adjoining garden over which a simple monument is erected, the town does not possess many objects of interest to the stranger, the University is the most ancient in Germany after that of Prague, it is said that the merchandise sold in the town amounts to sixty millions of dollars yearly of which ten millions is in the article of books, and that on some occasions so many names of strangers attending the fairs, have appeared on the books of the Police as 60 and 80 thousands.  At night I found that our carriage had not yet arrived, and after some trouble I found out the directors and made my complaint, they stated that it was a mistake of the Clerk who had taken the money not entering the place to which it was to be sent, but that it should be forwarded the next day, which was

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accordingly done, they also to make amends for the delay and trouble they had caused us, sent a young gentleman to beg my acceptance of the 15 dollars I had paid for its transport, which I willingly did, I thought this was more than I should have got from the managers of an English railroad, as every thing belonging to us was with it I had to make friends with the Landlady and borrow night caps etc etc, brushes and other necessaries. 23rd  Left at 1 P.M. and travelled a few stages to Naumberg where we found a very comfortable Hotel Prenpischerbotten?/lotte?  In the outskirts of the town; good “souper” clean beds and moderate. 24th  Left at 7 in the morning and had a long slow stage over a hilly country and winding along the valley of the Salle, entering the teritory of Sax Weimer and at noon dined at the capital of this Grand Dutchy, Weimar where resides the Grand Duke, a few miles from this, Jena famous for its Universities where many young Englishmen are sent, they generally receive great attention from the G Duke and are frequently invited to spend their holidays at Court; the town was tastily laid out with gardens and pleasure grounds before the houses:-shortly after this we again entered Prussia and passed through the town of Erfurt, a large and very strong town with walls drawbridges and moats its population has decreased very much of late years since the University was supressed and the Convents abolished, since it was annexed to Prussia; it was formerly the capital of Thuringia it is a dull ill looking place.  After leaving this we entered the Dutchy of Sax Gotha and reached the Town of the same name at 9 PM where we slept at ?“Der More” The Moor, which we found large but uncomfortable; the town is the occasional residence of

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the Duke of Sax Coburg to whose country Gotha is annexed, his palace Freidenstein is a Castle of striking appearance standing on high ground something like Windsor; the Hamster rat abounds to such an extent in the woods surrounding the town as frequently to become quite a plague, on one occasion Two hundred thousand of these formidable brutes were captured, they are nearly as large as an english hare and burrow below ground. 25th  Left at 7 AM. had a very heavy stage to Eisanach the capital of Sax Sisanach now belonging to Sax Weimar, in this Town Luther was confined for some time, having fallen under the displeasure of the Pope, on account of his religious opinions, which he had expressed strongly at the Diet of Worms, from which place he was returning when he was way laid and taken prisoner by a party and conveyed to this place of confinement, where he is said to have written many of his works, during which time he was frequently attacked by Satan who he on one occasion succeeded in banishing by throwing the inkstand at his head, in proof of which the splashes of ink are shown on the wall, which puts the thing beyond a doubt.  We then ascended for a long time through endless woods of fine Spruce firs and oaks, growing on fine round hills, towering above each other; this is part of the Forest of Thuringerwald which for many leagues is yet an unbroken forest, after leaving this wild tract, we entered the Electorate of Hesse Cassel, and passed through some fine undulating country well wooded on the high grounds, and reached Felden/Feldaz a town of considerable size on the river Felda, there


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is nothing of consequence in the town except the old Palace, formerly the residence of the Prince Bishops to whom the district then belonged, we found Stad Kurfurst good but dear; 26th   Left at 7 AM found the roads very good and well kept past through a very pretty varied country, well cultivated, but slightly fenced and fine oak woods, the cattle are much superior to those in the North of Germany, they are much like the Devons in appearance, the villages are more dirty and miserable than any we had seen, quite as bad as anything I had seen in Spain; we passed through part of Bavaria, a section of Nassau, then again into Hesse Cassel at the Town of ?Gelvhausen/Geluhausen, where we had dinner; there is here an ancient Palace for some time the abode of the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa; Hannau?Hannan? was the next town of importance we entered, it is large, next in size to Hesse Cassel, the houses good and streets wide and clean, there are several churches, a Scotchman called Ramsey defended this place for many months against Napoleon’s army; we then approached the Maine and reached Frankfort at 7 PM found Hotel d’Angleterre large and very good and as dear as Paris; two tables d’Hotes, first at 1 o’clock for the Germans, the next at 4 for the English, in such cases I always choose the native, as the cooking is generally much superior, for English they think that dry roast beef and mutton is the most choice dinner; as we were now entering on a part of our journey when Steamers and railroads were numerous, I sold our coach which had been of great use to us during the long inland journey. Oct 27th  This morning being Sunday we went to

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Mass at the Cathedral and Church Notre Dame, chiefly remarkable for antiquity; visited a gallery of paintings, a great mixture of old with new works, and some statues; it is secondrate, we obtained permission to see the statue of Ariadne reclining on a Lioness, it is rather colossal but very beautiful reckoned one of the finest pieces of statuary in Europe, the artist Danuecker was a native of Wurstenburg, it is in the garden of a Mr Bethmann.  We walked By the Boulvards which are extensive and very prettily laid out, with trees and flower beds, to the residence of Wm ?Brasen on whom we called; dined at table d’Hote at 4 all English; after which we drank tea with Mrs  Brasen/Breben/Bressen? and her daughters who was very glad to see friends from England and Scotland.  The town is large the river forms a straight side and the Boulvards a horse shoe, the new part and by the river is splendid, streets wide, clean and well paved, the houses handsome and very large indeed; the old part about the Cathedral and Jew Street is very curious and bears marks of great antiquity, the houses are chiefly faced with old black oak, they stand with the end to the street with a balcony on the second story overhanging the Street, on these there is generally a great deal of carving, these streets are narrow and not particularly clean.  Madam Rothschild lives in Jew Street, but the Baron has a very large house in the best part of the town, and another in the suburbs, the town is very lively and a great deal of business seems to be carried on; Ambassadors from all parts of Europe reside here as it is the place where the German Diet is usually held and one of the Free Cities, there are many fine

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horses and splendid equipages to be seen in the Streets; There is a monument erected by the King of Prussia in memory of the Hessian soldiers who fell at the siege of Frankfurt, a striking feature in the town is the number of shops exposing for sale the most beautiful coulored(sic) glass formed into all sorts of useful and ornamental utensils, it is far surpassing anything made in England or elsewhere than in Bohemia where it is manufactured. 28th  This morning called on Mr Koch a wealthy merchant, to get a bill on London cashed he was very civil and readily gave me the sum I wanted in the coin most suitable to the countries I was to pass through, after dinner at 1 PM we started in a hired carriage for Mayence for 15/-; the first time we had not post horses; or Extra Post which though slower and much inferior to that in England is very tolerable, the regulations are very good; if travellers have not their own carriage which is much the best way, one can always be had at the post stations, but they are generally open and very bad and dirty; the Postmasters are obliged to keep a great many horses, and an instance seldom occurs where there is a delay for want of horses, though the postillions are not very speedy in bringing out those they have; we always travelled with three horses, and the charge through Germany is so much a horse, from 10 to 12 half Selber Groshens, about from 11d to 1/2d English per German mile 4 three quarter English; at the beginning of each stage the Postmaster gives a bill(zettel) for the horses according to number for so many miles, also (schmeir geld) for greasing the wheels, which is done twice a day, ostler’s fee (wagenmeister) and tolls (chausee geld) which is paid before starting; and at the end of the stage it is the

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custom to give the postillion (Trinkgeld or Drinkmoney) for two or three horses from 10 to 15 Selb/silb? Grosh: or from 1/ to 1/6 per German mile according to the way he has conducted himself and the rate he has driven, this is more than double what he is entitled to by his tariff which is only about 6d a mile, the stages are generally very long the shortest I remember were 1 half mile, but few less than 2 half and as much as 3 half and one between Potsdam I remember and Dresden was 4 German or 19 English miles; On an average I found that more than the rate of one mile an hour could not be obtained including stoppages, even by bribing the postillions and ostlers to quicken their motions, when two horses are used the driver sits on the box, when three or more he rides the rear wheeler and uses a long whip to those in front, he also very frequently cheers himself with a tune on his winding horn which is carried to warn the toll men to hoist their bar (literally) which they do by means of a wheel and rope at the side of their house; the tariff in Germany and especially in Prussia is  a great safeguard to the traveller, you can scarcely employ a person who is not obliged to charge according to tariff and must shew it if you are dissatisfied, and every master of a hotel is obliged to have a list of charges exposed to view in several parts of the house, for lodging, food, fuel, servants (who are paid en masse) and valets de place; if any infringement of these charges or rules is made, and a complaint is made to the police, the Hotel keeper or whoever the offender is, is liable to severe punishment.  I did not make use of any of the Diligences or as they are called Eilwagen, or Schnellpost, (literally quick posts) partly

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on account of their slowness and because they are managed in a much less convenient system than in France where you may secure a place or as many as you require by their numbers and retain them to the end of the journey by which means companions can be always together; but in Germany they will book at the office as many as come and if the number is too great for the Eilwagen, some other machein (sic)  probably an open rickety thing is sent on along with the chief one, and as that empties, part of the passengers are draughted from the secondary one into the big, and then probably a still less one is substituted for the other which is sufficient to contain the diminished number and requires a horse fewer, by this means you are changed about and neither know where yourself or your companions are to be found by the time daylight comes; and it is reckoned that three or four travelling together can do so as cheaply and much more comfortably by posting than by the Diligence.  In travelling through Germany every one ought to be very particular to furnish himself with money that will pass in all the different countries, every one of which has its own distinct coinage and you may probably in one day pass through four or five countries in not one of which the money of the others a few miles distant is of any value; the useful money is paper of from one to five and ten dollars each about a quarter the size of an English bank note, and also gold pieces of about 16 thalars, which will go in all but bear a different value in almost every state, you should change as little money as possible, and contrive to get quit of all the small coin on reaching the confines of a country, or if any are left pay the postillion with them, who takes you into the next kingdom

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there are many pieces of money that bear the same name in different states, but are of quite a different value, and the subdivisions are so numerous and small that it is impossible to remember them except the most common; I have heard several Germans who have lived their whole lives in the country say that they did not know the comparative value of a great number of the coins in daily use; this seems very foolish. From Frankfurt we passed through a good and well cultivated district in the Dutchy of Nassau and part of Hesse Darmstadt, leaving a lofty range of mountains on the right the lower parts of which were well wooded, and the more lofty and distant were capped with snow, at the base of this range is situated Wisbaden a famous watering place, much resorted to by invalides and fashionables from all countries in Europe, after passing the town of Cassel we crossed the Rhine by a bridge of boats, just below the junction of the Maine, we now entered Mayence and drove to Hotel Holande, a very windy cold house with little comfort. 29th   We perambulated the town and saw the Cathedral and a Church, which are pretty good, the former is heavy and strong, and superfluously gilt and whitewashed, and well peopled with statues of Churchmen, the Archbishop had formerly the privelage of placing the crown on the head of all the German Sovereigns the town has a peculiar appearance from most of the buildings being red one of which the Governor’s House has a very striking look from the landing place.  This town was one

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of the most strongly fortified in Germany and though belonging to the Grand Duke of Hesse Darmstadt it is garrisoned chiefly by Prussian and Austrian troops to the number of 9.000, being one fourth of the whole population, the mixture of the blue and the white uniforms gives a gay aspect to the scene, the town is also governed in succession, for five years at a time, by the several heads of the Kingdoms and Dutchys forming the Confederation; this was the day of change from Prince Wm of Prussia to the Gd Duke of Hesse Hombourg, at which period there are processions and reviews with much music etc etc; in the time of the war the garrison consisted of 18,000 men.  Without the walls, moats, etc. are public gardens and walks, where the citizens resort in the evenings to hear music and smoke pipes; from this there is a very pleasant view of the junction of the Rhine and Maine, and looking across to Nassau to the north and H Darmstadt to the east; near the town on the bank of the river are the Vineyards which produce the real Hock, though that name is given to much in England which never came from the Vineyards of Hockheimer.  In the forenoon we took steamer and proceeded down the Rhine, for some way the banks present nothing remarkable for beauty, a range of the Nassau hills are seen in the distance, and look very imposing, a few miles lower the banks become very steep, rocky, and abrupt and present a very wild aspect with sharp points and glens growing brushwood, with many Castles and Towers rising from high rocky points and inaccessible places, the river winds with sharp turns shewing at each a new picture, most of the

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Castles are in a ruined condition, except a few, which are undergoing repair by the royal Princes of Prussia, for Summer residences, near St Goarhausen?/Goarhansen? and on the opposite side, is a deep and wild Glen, through which a small river dashes down to the Rhine, and there is a great black precipice called the Lurleyberg??? which is grand and which returns an echo many times, The German students amuse themselves by asking the echo “Who is the Burgomaster of Oberbesel”? it answers “Esel”, the German for ass-a joke which the worthy burgomaster does not relish; The Whirlpool or Wirbel, formed by an eddy below the rock, is sometimes dangerous, particularly to rafts, the men guiding which, have not infrequently been washed off; just above is the picturesque Castle of the “Cat” and a little below is another called in contrast the “Mouse” however the Mouse was generally the strongest and most powerful of the two, so that the Cat trembled before it; it is one of the most perfect forts on the Rhine; at a little distance behind St Goar rises the huge Fortress of “Rhinefels” the most extensive ruin on the Rhine.  From this to Coblentz are numerous Castles and turrets, rising from almost every high point, meeting the eye at every turn, most so small and almost all in such a dilapidated state that it gives the appearance of a made up thing much overdone, you are tired of seeing more ruins and of hearing more names you can’t remember; what appeared to me most striking was the steamers rapid descent between two almost precipitous banks, and a sudden turn of

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the river; round some of the angles of rocks, lost it to our view and in front some great black pile presented itself giving one the idea that in another minute, a hundred yards further the ship must inevitably be dashed to pieces, when on a sudden, when the fatal point is just reached, a new reach of the river is opened to view the Vessel glides swiftly round the overhanging mass at almost a right angle and seems to have entered a new lake which is again bounded by another savage rock or wild mountain.  In our course we passed the famous Chateau and Vineyard of Prince Meteneque where the Johanisberg wine is grown, which bears almost the highest reputation among Rhenish wines in the English market; The few Villages we passed on the banks seemed poor and dirty, I understand in some parts Salmon fishing is carried on with success; On nearing Coblentz the vale is wider, the hills less lofty and steep and more homely, the far famed part does not extend more than twenty miles; I must confess (though it may be wondered at) that I felt disappointed, in what my expectations had  been previously raised so high, it is without a doubt wild, varied and fine, but in my opinion not nearly so  really grand as parts of the Elbe and the country near it in the hilly parts of Saxony; I have not seen Switzerland, but I think Cintra ??? and its neighbourhood might bear a favourable comparison with the Rhine.  The long bridge of boats opened to let us pass, and we made fast at the Quay of Coblentz on the left or west bank, till then Nassau had been on our right from Mayence, and on our left the Prussian provinces of the Bas Rhine; Coblentz is in

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the latter, we found the Giant’s Hotel close to the Quay very good, if the rooms were not so near the clouds, in that country the beds become more like the English, larger and nearer six feet than four in length, and in some places a bed is found that will hold two which is an unheardof circumstance in Prussia or in Saxony.  In the evening we called at the house of Mr Wilkins a merchant I knew in London, but he was then in England, his house was in an open square; except that it was well filled with trees; there is nothing remarkable in the town itself, but the next morning Oct 30th  we crossed the bridge of boats to the smaller part of the town on the Northwest bank of the river, where is the remarkable rock and Fortifications of Ehrenbreitstein(honor’s broad stone) called the Gibralter of the Rhine, This is a most imposing object and though not so high or nearly so extensive as Gibralter, put me much in mind of the latter place, the ascent is very steep but the trouble is soon forgotten on gazing on the view below and around, the Rhine is seen for a considerable way above and below, winding amongst the wooded banks, the town below lies in an angle formed by the Rhine and Moselle, which is seen for a great distance passing through a good deal of open country; beyond the river are two fortresses of great strength, placed on high ground, Forts Constantine and Alexander, which look very pretty among woods, there are also forts one above the town; another below called Ft Wellington, to all of these it is said there are subterranean passages of communication

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from the principal Fortress, the weakest part of the fort is from the west, as it is overlooked by hills from behind, but here art has done all that was possible to obviate the deficiency, it was never taken by storm, but was taken by the French after having starved the garrison by a long siege, after which they blew up the strongest parts of it, but this has been since repaired at a very great cost by the Prussians and it is now considered to be stronger than ever, it is calculated to accommodate 14,000 men and is provided with stores to support that number for six or seven years, besides tanks in the rock, containing three years water, they have a well sunk to the water of the Rhine, but that is only for a case of emergency, as the water of that river is unwholesome there is an extensive platform on the top which is used as a parade ground , the walls seemed to be well supplied with guns of great size, I understood the height of the fortress above the river to be 800 feet.The town seems flurishing(sic) and alive with trade, though small; not exceeding 16,000 souls exclusive of the troops which are usually 10,000 men, in most of the Frontier towns of Prussia, half or one third of the population seemed to be soldiers; I believe the regular standing army in Prussia consists in the time of peace of Six hundred thousand men; Besides the trade in the wines of the Rhine and Mosele with England, the situation of the town nearly at the junction of three rivers, flowing from different directions, gives to Coblentz great advantages for trade as well for imports as exports; great quantities of Seltzer water is shipped yearly; and a regular trade is carried on with France in Shipments of corn and

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excellent iron wrought from mines in the neighbourhood, the Volcanic productions of the country are also a source of trade, as the lava formed into millstones, the ashes etc etc;- 30th  Left Coblentz in the afternoon by Steamer, after passing down for a few miles the river enters a narrow and deep gorge in the mountains, after this for some distance the scenery is more grandly bold and masculine than that above Coblentz, the hills higher, bolder and clothed with larger and better wood, very many Castles and Turrets are still conspicuous, each bearing some appropriate name, one near this entrance almost overhanging the Vessel as it passes, is the Castle of Frederichstein or the Devils House, probably from its dangerous situation so named.  Many of the hills have great signs of having been Volcanoes, but of their having been so there is no tradition, One called Roderberg has a Crater at top a quarter of a mile in diameter, and one hundred feet deep, and the sides of this hill and many others is composed of similar strata and volcanic matter as that found on Vesuvious and other mountains subject to eruptions; in many places the rocks have been blasted and quarried and the stone is pounded and forms a considerable source of trade with Holland, being used as a cement which acquires the greatest hardness, a range  of mountains extends nearly to Bonn varying in height from 1.000 to 14.000 feet, (illegible) of these the Drachenfels springing almost perpendicularly out of the river, are reckoned by those who have explored them all, the most beautiful and are thought to command the finest View, it may be so, or it may be that Byron has given to them a name; I did

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not discover their superior merit, albeit they are very fine.  Its name signifies the Dragons rock.  Opposite the Village of ?Unkel is the Unkelstein, a hill said to resemble the Giant’s Causeway from it basaltic columns, they seemed to stand and lie, Vertically and horizontally and extend far into what seemed as if it should be the bed of the river, part of the rock was blown up as it formed a serious obstacle to the passage of rafts down the river, but still the water roars and foams past the Ulkelstein with a tremendous force.  From Bonn the banks are flat and uninteresting, the Spires of Cologne may be seen for many miles from the flatness of the country, we reached the latter town at 4 half PM, found good omnibusses waiting at the quay to convey us to the different hotels; we found the Ceur Imperial the best furnished house we had met with and very comfortable; we walked out to see the town and buy eau de Cologne at 11 half Silber Groshins, half per bottle, 7/6 per case of six bottles, the streets seemed narrow and not very clean but we observed several good looking shops. Oct 31st  Left in a hired carriage for 12 Dollars, and travelled a very bad road, the worst we had seen in Prussia, rested and dined at a strongly walled town called Juliers and reached Aix la Chapelle in the evening, being 7 hours over 43 English miles and through a country little interesting.  We went to Le Grand Monargue, (great and good), and had warm baths in a very large bath establishment belonging to the Hotel; the baths were each like a room big enough to swim in, and the water was so strong or so heavy I don’t quite know the reason, that it was scarcely possible to keep to the bottom. Nov 1st  Saw the sights of the Town which was the residence

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of Charlemagne and which he intended should be the Capital of is Empire north of the Alps, and where the Emperors of Germany his successors should be crowned, since his time it has been in the possession of France and was only sceded to Germany at the Peace of Paris; it had been the place at which many of the Congresses had been held, among others that when the allied sovereigns decided on the evacuation of France by their armies in 1818.  In the town there are yet remains of Roman buildings and ancient baths are discovered on digging foundations.  The Hotel de Ville, forming one side of the market place, is a great building, it is said to stand on the ground where Charlemagne was born; in it there is a large hall with a very handsome ceiling, containing a number of bad paintings of the members of the several congresses which were held there; in the middle of the market place is a large fountain surmounted by a brazen statue of Charlemagne which seems very ancient.  Some parts of the town are very good and several new streets seem to have been built of late years, much broader and more modern looking than the others, but the town generally does not bear marks of great antiquity.  The Cathedral is considerably large and has been built by two different persons, one at an earlier and later period; it is held that the part where the Nave now stands is where Charlemagne built his Chapel, from which the town took its name, and which he intended should be his burying place, It was consecrated by a Pope from Rome with the greatest possible pomp and ceremony, there were to have been 365 Archbishops and bishops present but two of these could not come, such a falling off might

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Have caused the most serious consequences, had not two who had been long dead and buried at some far distant monastery, very obligingly walked forth and coolly taken their seats among the others, at least so says tradition.  When the Tomb was opened by the Emperor Otho, the body of Charlemagne was found in a sitting position dressed in his robes,with his crown, sword, etc.etc,and the new testament open on his knee; all the valuable ornaments were removed by the Emperor Frederick Barbarosssa and were used in the coronations of the German Emperors; the throne on which his body was placed is the only thing now remaining, which is shewn as a most holy relic by a Priest; in the church are also seen hanging models of legs, hands etc etc which is common in Spain and Portugal which have been presented to the Saints by poor people who fancy they have had some limb cured.  They pretend to shew the scull and leg bone of Charlemagne but the former is as big as a cheese, and the latter like a horses leg bone, also the clothes in which Christ was wrapped, the sponge with vinegar, Aron’s rod, some of the manna from the Wilderness, a nail of the cross and such like stuff.  There are also other more sacred relics which are shewn to the people publicly only once in seven years and it is said as many as 150 thousand pilgrims have been present on the occasion, and even in 1832 the last time of shew as many as 43 thousand pious people from all parts were there, but they very wisely shew them privately to strangers for a fee of about 10/ English, which most people are foolish enough to give; you see the robe worn by the Virgin; the swaddling clothes like coarse sacking or barn sheets, The cloth on which the head of John Baptist(s) was carried.  The bloody scarf worn by Christ

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at the crucifixion etc etc, these are said to have been given to the Emperor by the Patriarch of Jerusalem, and by Aron King of Persia, and of course they must be genuine.  In the Church of St Nicholas there are a few good paintings. The Fountain where the Visitors repair as at other watering places to Drink water, is elegantly furnished with a colonnade with a café and other conveniences attached, the water is warm but I did not drink it, but all the water in Aix is so hard it draws the mouth together and is very unpleasant; I believe the chief ingredient is sulphur or sulphuretted hydrogen gas and its temperature is said to be 143 degrees, said to be the strongest of that sort of water in Europe, I would rather drink what is called “strong water” in Portugal. *agua ardente.  The Theatre is a large good looking building, but we only saw the exterior there being no spectacle; There is a great trade in the cloth manufactory carried on in Aix and the neighbourhood, as many as fifty mills are at regular work; when I say that Aix contains about 40.000 inhabitants I think I have said all I know concerning it, except that we departed from it at noon en route to Liege, we passed a very finely wooded undulating country enclosed by hedgerows, and filled with hedge row timber, we soon crossed the frontier at Henrichapelle where we were overhauled but leniently, the officers sold us a case of B’eau??? de Cologne and put it into the Carriage, but I found on looking inside only half the proper compliment of bottles, on complaining they laid the blame on the servant who had brought it out of the house whether justly or not is doubtful and replaced it

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by a proper case.  I question much their right to sell the goods at all, which they had seized from other travellers, we dined at a small town called Herve, and passed several others where some business seemed to be carried on,  the country was well cultivated with numerous orchards and gardens and great quantities of fruit was exposed for sale in all the villages we passed; a rail is in progress between Aix and Liege in connection with that from Liege to the west; much of the road is pave which is far from pleasant and the hills are frequent the distance is 30 miles reached Hotel Black Eagle at Liege at 6PM.

Nov 2nd  We set out to see the sights, first climbing a high mound formerly a Citadel called Mount St Walburg, from which a birds eye view of the town and suburbs is obtained, which is surpassed by few in beauty, the town itself is black and dirty bearing the marks of its calling being the Birmingham of that part of the world; but the junction of the three rivers “the Meuse, the Burthe??? and Vestre/vestne/vesdre?” almost within the town with prettily wooded banks, neat bridges and boats, gives a varigated and lively appearance to the landscape the country in the distance is richly wooded, the great Forest of Ardennes stretches far to the south, towards the Luxembourg although Lord Byron places it in the neighbourhood of Waterloo; it is famous for its game, especially boars which afford great sport.  The Churches most worthy of notice are St Jaque and St Paul the cathedral, especially the former whose windows are very peculiar and elegant resembling the most delicately worked lace possible, and looking so pure and light that you might fancy it falling into the most delicate

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folds.  The town contains about 60.000 inhabitants and the surrounding neighbourhood is very populous, the chief manufacture of the town is firearms which can be made very good and at a low price, cannons are cast in considerable numbers and steam engines for the railroads by John Cockerill, the late partner of William Nassau before the seperation from Holland rendered it inconvenient for that trading King to be principal manufacturer in an adverse kingdom.  We left by a carriage which brought us to the railway station at Ans, three miles from Liege; we passed by rail through an open corn growing district, by St Trou and Louvains/louraine?, where the scene alters, the country seems a succession of gardens divided by hedges and very prettily cultivated; at Malines where the rail from Liege joins that between Bruxelles and Antwerp, we changed carriages and were detained for some time, till the Brussels train came up, which trundled us to Antwerp at a good pace, we were carried to our several Hotels in Busses, we to St Antoine after dining we went to the Cathedral to hear service.    Nov 3rd  We ascended the Spire of the Cathedral in the morning, and had a most extensive view of the surrounding country as far as the Holland villages, the numerous sheets of water which is in fact the River Scheld seen for a great distance winding in different direction among the flat wooded country, forms a peculiar picture; the tete??? de Flandre on the opposite side stands very low and damp a great tract of land adjoining it was under water for several years

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during the disturbances but is now brought under cultivation again; from the spire the view of the Citadel is distinct, and the gardens, beyond where the French were posted during the bombardment.  We descended and heard grand mass, it being Sunday and a fete day the music was very fine and the assembly numerous and respectable looking; the building is extensive, simple, and beautiful, being entirely white and the numbers of fluted columns appear to great advantage; The paintings in the Cathedral are not very numerous, but very large and most beautiful, that of the descent of our Saviour from the Cross by Rubens and reckoned his Chef d’oeuvre is one of the finest paintings in the north of Europe. The lifeless body is very striking and the contrast between the pale face and the white sheet is what few artists have been known to venture to paint, there are others greatly deserving of notice, but although one never tires of witnessing beautiful paintings over and over again, it is not needful that I should now minutely describe what has already been noticed in another part, suffice it to say, that the Churches are numerous and beautiful, especially St Jaques, St Paul, St Andrews, the Church of the Augustin’s, St Anthony of Padua, that of St Carlo or the Jesuites; Borromeo; St Walberg etc are the most remarkable and none of which should be left unvisited by the traveller; they are all rich in the most splendid paintings from the best Flemish masters, Rubens, Van Dyke etc etc. the interior architecture of most is very fine; The Pulpits of some carved in the most delicate and curious in manner? are surprising and the screens? of the chapels and alters carved in white marble besides statues and ornaments shews the taste and wealth that had been expended on them; The Museum which is entirely a collection of Choice paintings contains

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a most numerous collection of the productions of their old masters, those of Rubens are the most numerous and from the brilliancy of their colours and the spirit of the groups is a very pleasing sight; many of the most valuable of these as well as those in the Churches were carried to Paris by Napolion, but were all restored after the peace, to the great joy of the Citizens.  The Citadel which is one of the strongest pieces of artificial fortification I have ever seen, is extensive, and was the scene of the great struggle between the Dutch and the Belgians assisted by the French in 1832, when it was so gallantly defended by General Chasse, after every edifice within the fortress was destroyed, they continued to live for a length of time in the subterranian passages and bombproof magazines excluded from the light of day, after holding out against a siege and battery for two months, and the breach in the wall had been made practicable, Chasse sent a flag of truce and the garrison surrendered; about twenty years before this fortress was taken by the English under General Graham after a siege of four months duration, it was shewn to us by an Officer who fought there on the latter occasion (1832) who was explaining the different occurrences to his wife and brother; the mischief done by the siege is now repaired and stronger than before, the injury done to the town was very trifling, as it was the interest of both sides to do as little damage to private property as possible, a few balls are seen sticking in the walls which are always painted black to appear conspicuous in the white walls.  The Quays and Docks are excellent, and capacious, great care and a very large sum was expended on them by Napolion (sic), who wished to create in it a rival in

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commerce to London, and as a naval establishment to Portsmouth, and for some time a very great trade was carried on from all parts of the globe, as the extensive piles of warehouses, stores, Customhouses etc shew, but a reverse of fortune has taken place, at the peace the Dockyards were demolished according to the Treaty, but the two large basins were left for the purposes of commerce; and after the Belgian revolution and its seperation from Holland the trade almost entirely left it, finding another channel to Rotterdam Amsterdam etc. In the evening we attended mass at the Cathedral which lasted for an hour and a half, the tone of the organ and the band of many voices had a beautifully soft effect, as the swelling and dying sounds were wafted among the many pillars and arches through the great pile of building, I should think three thousand people were present, of which a good proportion were men which is seldom the case in France or Spain except among the aged and infirm.  I do not know any town in Europe which better repays the traveller for a visit than Antwerp. Nov 4th  Left by railway for Brussels about thirty miles taking an hour and a half; passing Malines where there is a high unfinished spire, this town is famous for its lace manufactory which in England is called Mecklin?? lace; at the Brussels station omnibuses were ready to bring us to the Hotels in the high part of the town, we went to the Hotel de Flandre in the Place Royale, on a former occasion I had been at Hotel Belle Vue in the same square, which is considered the first rank house, but found it big and uncomfortable and attendance very bad, Hotel de Flandre we found good and comfortable but for an importunate Valet de Place who I soon found was looking sharply after his own interests while he

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pretended to be doing great service for us, after Table d’Hote we went to the Opera, where we heard very good music, and a good company, the house is not large but neat and comfortable but would be the better of a little paint, the Royal Box is in the front or rather the centre of the gallery. Nov 5th  We started in the morning in a carriage for which the charge was 24 francs for Waterloo, a distance of ten miles which we reached in an hour and a half, by a paved road partly through a nicely undulating cultivated country, and part of the way through the wood of Soignies, we passed on through the village, having the house pointed out where the Duke of Wellington had his head quarters and slept the night before and after the battle, and the house where the Marquis of Angelsey’s leg was cut off and buried in the garden etc etc. at Mont St Jean (called Monsinjin) there is a small inn where carriages generally stop, as it is on the entrance to the field of battle, but as the country was dirty we drove at once to Hougoumont, and saw the Farm house and yard where Colonel Mac Donald shut the yard door against a body of French under Jerome Bonaparte who were without and made desperate attempts to take it; and the orchard where Colonel Fraser (now our hunting companion Lord Saltoun) commanded the Coldstream guards, the French three times entered by a gate at the back but were immediately driven back by the English bayonets, the most distressing part of the occurrences at this place was the firing of the straw in the farmyard by shells from the French guns, upon which straw the wounded of both sides were laid; the consequence was that the whole of the poor helpless fellows were burnt.  The view of the whole field from the top of the mound which was raised by the

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Prince Of Orange on the spot where he received his wound about the centre of the English line is very fine, and the positions occupied by the different divisions and regiments and where many of the Officers fell, are easily understood as pointed out by the guide, there are several monuments on the field erected to the memory of the fallen, the ground is most favorable for a great pitched battle being a long narrow vally (sic) three miles in length not deep or steep, and nearly alike favorable for both armies, yet the advantage was rather in favor of the English  line not while fighting but being on a narrow ridge regiments that were not engaged were enabled to shelter themselves from the fire, the holding of Hougoumont always seems to me to have saved the day being at the extreme right it prevented the French turning the right wing which had they been able to do their numbers would have enabled them to come round and attack our troops in rear and then nothing could have stood before them, from the Belgian lion you see the small farm places where the engagements were so fierce, La Haye Sainte where a great number of the German legion were slaughtered after defending it most bravely their ammunition having run out; La Belle Alliance where Napolion was stationed during most of the battle and where he drew up his Imperial guard who had carried victory before him in every Kingdom on the Continent, but who were here fated, after three desperate attacks led on by the Emperor in person to within range of the British fire to be completely routed by the obstinate bravery of their opponents; to the left of the mound a small stone marks where General Picton fell and further left is the spot where Ponsonby was killed by the Polish Lancers while trying to follow his troops on a tired horse out of a marshy hollow, on the extreme left is the wood of Fichermont/frichessmont? out of which Old Blucher emerged

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at half past four o’ clock, just as the old guard had been repulsed, on his advance upon the right wing of the French the whole British line charged and the rout immediately became general, soon after 5 the English troops shattered and worn out with a long and hard days fighting were recalled, and the pursuit left to the Prussians who followed the flying and broken armies so lately the pride of France and the terror of the world for a considerable distance, after the battle the Duke and Blucher met at the Belle Alliance.  No one should leave Waterloo without visiting the church where monuments are raised to the memory of many of those who fell in battle, most of them by the officers of the regiments in honor of their companions who fell by their sides, the names of the officers are generally given and the number of the privates with appropriate inscriptions, it is a melancholy sight to see the deaths of such numbers of our countrymen recorded in a foreign land most of them young men in the prime of life; in the afternoon we returned to Brussels in time for table d’haute after which we adjourned to the theatre and first heard a play, then an opera of very pretty music. 6th  We went to see the Cathedral which is a plain but good building, not nearly equal in beauty to that at Antwerp, yet the painted windows are very rich and beautiful I believe the finest now in existence; the carved pulpit is curious besides there is nothing in the interior worthy of remark, but the two massive and richly ornamented towers are imposing and fine.  We visited the lace manufactury which is exceedingly curious from its minuteness and the beauty of intricacy of the work, but I cannot attempt to describe it; it is a dangerous place for ladies few

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are able to withstand the temptation of purchasing.  The Park is a very peculiar one it is a large square or oblong formed by the palaces and public buildings and other good buildings and is filled with fine drives and avenues of good trees behind which it is filled  up as shrubberies and pleasure grounds with here and there fountains and it is very pretty and forms a pleasant walk at the further end is the Chamber of Deputies which we visited also that of the Piers they are small but very nice and comfortable; in an anty chamber is a very large painting representing the Prince of Orange at the moment when he received the ball in his breast at Waterloo, looking deadly pale and holding his handkerchief to the wound and being supported on his horse by his aid de camp the Duke of Richmond and others, an English dragoon is bearing off a French flag honoured by the name of Austerlitz; a dying Highlander is stretched on the ground attended to only by his dog which is licking his face; and a French Pioneer leaning on the carriage of a gun in the agonies of death from a wound in his head is altogether very touching and interesting.

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Page 180 Duplicate (A repeat/mixture of some of the others)

by the Prince Of Orange on the spot where he was wounded,  about the center of the British Line, is very fine and the several positions occupied by the different regiments during the engagement and the spots where many of the officers fell, are easily understood as pointed out by the guide.   There are several monuments on the field erected to the memory of the fallen.  On our return to Mont St Jean the ladies changed their shoes and stockings, for doing which I advise all ladies to make provision.  As we returned we entered the Church at Waterloo where there are a great many Monuments  to the memory of individuals as well as to the Slain in each regiment  it is a very melancholy and interesting place. At 5 o’clock we reached Hotel de Flandre in Brussels, dined at  Table d’hote and went to the theatre where we first saw a play and afterwards an opera of very pretty music to a thinly filled house. Nov 6th  We visited the Cathedral which is a plain but good building though not nearly equal to that at Antwerp, the painted windows are very rich and fine almost the most noted now in existence; the carved Pulpit is also curious besides which there is nothing worthy of remark in the interior of the building, but the two massive and richly ornamented towers are imposing and fine.  We saw the Lace Manufactury which is exceedingly curious from the extreme minuteness  of the work, we had to purchase a few small things as an acknowledgement for their trouble.  We saw the Chambers of Deputies and of Peers which are small but neat and comfortable, in an antechamber is a very large and interesting painting of the Prince of Orange at the time he received his wound on the field of Waterloo, holding a white handkerchief to his bleeding breast and being supported on his charger by his aid de camp the Duke of Richmond

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and others, near is an English Dragoon bearing off the French flag of Austerlitz; a dying Highlander and his dog watching over him,  and a French Pioneer  in the agonies of death from a wound in his head etc, the whole is exceedingly spirited and fine.  We next visited the Palace of the Prince of Orange; on entering we were made to put on listen??? slippers over our boots and to slide over the polished wood floors which are prettily inlaid with dark and light woods, the man who has charge was very particular in preventing us crossing any part but made us keep close by the walls which are chiefly of marble and hung with red and purple velvet and most of the furniture is richly gilded.  The music hall and ball room, or as the man called it “the jumping room” is very pretty, there are twelve large massive gilt candlesticks richly ornamented about eight feet high, each of which supports a chandelier filled up with a great number of candles, the staircase is simple and pretty; the whole is chaste elegant and beautiful without being uncomfortably large or monstrously splendid; it is the private property of the Prince of Orange who although he is unable to enter Belgium or make use of it in any way, will not dispose of it, or let anything be done with the furniture, and Leopold declines occupying or having anything to do with it.  We were unable to see the King’s Palace, which I had seen a few years before, as it is now occupied, neither could we see the Palace of Lakin as the Queen is living there; Leopold was himself residing at Wisbaden for the benefit of his health; We walked for some time in the Park and boulevards by the botanical gardens where there are extensive greenhouses and a very pretty endroit.  The town is quiet and good in the high part; and dirty and the streets narrow with very ancient looking houses in the low

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town. 7th Left Brussels by railroad in the morning and proceeded by Malines to Ghent or Gand and took up our quarters at Hotel de la Poste, where I had been before a very good house kept by a very dark Roman, we wandered out to see the town till dark, The University is a fine building, the entrance hall is all of marble the staircase is very wide and handsome the steps being each of a solid block of stone, the rotunda or amphitheatre where classes attend lectures and prizes are distributed is elegant and fine; the Library is also a fine room.  The Cathedral is very ancient and is one of the finest buildings in Belgium it has twenty four chapels richly decorated and worked in marble, the collection of Sculpture and paintings is numerous and chiefly by the best Flemish masters, one remarkable picture “the Adoration of the spotless Lamb” the master piece of the brothers Hubert and John Van Eyck; another by Rubens “The entering of the Church by St Bavon the Patron Saint” the principal figures of which are as usual portraits of members of Ruben’s own family.  There is also a beautiful statue in white marble of St Bavon who was first a soldier and renounced that profession to become a Monk; by the alter there are four very large copper candlesticks, which bear the arms of England and are supposed to have been sold out of St Paul’s in Westminster by Oliver Cromwell.  In the church of St Michael is the celebrated “Crucifixion” by Vandyck which has been very much injured by injudicious cleaning, there are several other Churches deserving notice if the traveller can spare time.  The College Museum contains a very large collection of the usual materials and of scelitans (sic).  This town was at one time the second or third in Europe for trade but has much fallen off

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it now contains about 85.000 inhabitants; in 1400 it had 80.000 men capable of bearing arms, of those 40.000 were weavers who had a powerful charter. And yet when the bell tolls morning and evening while they go to and return from their work, carriages must stop, drawbridges must remain down and the boats and shipping must wait till the weavers have disappeared. 8th  We left Ghent in the morning and reached Brughes, another ancient town, with rather a fine Cathedral and high massive tower; we past on by rail through a flat uninteresting country and reached Ostend in the afternoon to dinner at the Hotel de Cour Imperiale an ordinary house, we walked on the ramparts and on the sands, and departed next morning a 1 AM per Menai Steamer for London the sea was very smooth we made land at 5 had a fine day and pleasant sail up the river and landed at the Custom House Stairs at 2 PM which was a very quick passage; I chartered a coach and sent the ladies to our lodgings while I remained to clear the luggage and bring it afterwards, it being LordMayor’s day they had the luck to meet the procession and afterwards saw that on the river in the barges from their windows which overlooked the river; we remained in Town seeing the numerous sights and visiting Greenwich and other remarkable places in the neighbourhood till Nov 16th when we left by railway to Preston, took Coach to Carlisle, and again by rail to Dilston where we rested a day, then we proceeded by Newcastle where we found our phaeton and came to Roseden where the ladies rested till I had a days hunting and brought them home in the evening Nov 20th




October 5th 1839 was the day of his marriage to Elizabeth Boyd Neil.


George Annett Grey's Diaries

Journey 4: 1839 October 5 to November 20, Pages 137-183 Germany

Newcastle, Heligoland, Cuxhaven, Hanover, Glukstad, Hamburg, Meckklenberg (area) Warmen, (cant find) Berlin, Perleberg,? Kysitz?, Berlin, Postdam, Dresden, Leipzig, Naumberg Weimer, Eisenach, Felden, Glerhausen, Hannau, Frankfort, Wisbaden, Mayence ( could be Mainz), Darmstadt, Colblentz, Unkel? Bonn, Juliers?, (Julich, east of Cologne?) Aix la Chappelle ( is Auchan) Aix, Herve, (could be Verviers west of Liege) Liege, Ans, St Trou,(could be St Truden) Louvaines, Antwerp, Brussels, Waterloo, Brussells, Mailines,( is Mechelen) Gand, (is Ghent), Bruges, London, Preston, Carlisle, Dilston, Newcastle

Heligoland ceded to Britain by Denmark in 1814, ceded to Germany in 1890 as part of a colonial setllement of Africa.



Page 172 William Nassau: Dutch King
Roseden, near Wooler, family home of Robert Neil, Elizabeth Boyd Neil's father.
For Journey 5 1849 July 12 to July 22,click here: