Page 34 (4)Topiary?

Page 23 (1) George Grey RN, brother of Charles Grey of Howick, (Reform Bill premier), father of George Grey Home Sec. 1846, great grandfather of Grey of Falloden. George became an Admiral and in 1836 was ordered to survey and reaffirm the possession of the Falkland Islands whose sovereignty was constantly disputed.


Falmouth, 7th January 1838 My dear mother, To help away a dull day in a vile dirty town considerably worse than Tweedmouth or Wooler I will try to spin a yarn for you. I got your letter and that from my father sometime before I left London telling me of Corrie’s intentions as to the Tyne business, I should be very glad to hear that he had got it , it would likely be a permanent thing for him yet I should also be glad to find him join me by following me a little time hence, he would lose nothing but the most tedious part of my job, should he come he would probably find that I have gone up the Douro , but I will leave directions for his finding me, send him to Mr Selby to get all instructions. The fair up the Country is in February and I shall not certainly be able to leave Oporto before the end of that month, I wish I had got off a fortnight earlier I shall be rather pinched for time. It will take me a fortnight at Lisbon and St ????and as much at Cadiz and Xeris St Maries etc then if I call at Gibraltar, Malaga, Tarragona and Barcellona , one cannot stay for the steamers less than a week in each and I must be in Rousillon in time to be for a couple of weeks with the old gentleman (Durand) before he starts for Paris which he intends doing in May-I shall leave Cette, Marseilles and Toulon till after that-I have got some letters to Lisbon from General Shaw but none to Oporto where I stood most in need of them.


Now for this side of the water. I left London on Wednesday night by the mail to Exeter and of course went through a great deal of country in the dark, got to Shaftsbury at daylight, took a seat outside and had a fine day through Dorset, Somerset and Devon and reached Exeter in the afternoon. The next day I spent in talking to Drewe and looking about the town, the cathedral etc, and got into the Quicksilver Mail and got to Plymouth or rather Devonport by dusk. I found there was to be a great fancy ball in the house and as I saw Bulteel’s name as a steward and there was little chance of having a sleep when all the harps and pipes were buzzing and humming and I had made acquaintance with a lot of young officers and sailors with whom I had travelled and dined, I paid my seven shillings and went (people were not forced to be in fancy dress) There were near six hundred people, about a hundred officers red or blue from the land or water and people as if from all nations and tongues. Turks and Turkesses, Zealanders tattooed, brigands, swiss girls and a great many other outlandish and cockatoo looking concerns, but not a pretty face in the room, I saw Lady Elizabeth Bulteel and Mr Ellice, but Mr John , as they call him in this country, did not come-Lady E is looking terribly old and scraggy . I tired about 2 o clock and went to bed. The next morning I saw over the Dockyards etc etc had a view of the harbour, pier etc from a height,-after that I rode out to the ?Fleet to call on Bulteel but he was from home, I left a Card with an understandable description of myself-it is about ten miles from Plymouth-I rode home by the Kennels where he used to live at Lyneham, and saw his hounds, they did not look very flash but useful, very bad places for


them and a wet Kennel, but he has a very bad hunting country --It is, I should think very pretty in Summer, it was a fine afternoon and I sauntered slowly home by the side of the Plym. I got into the mail at night and reached this place at 5 this morning, the London mails lose 5 hours just now from their wet heavy state……,we crossed the water from Devonport in the Mail on a Steam Bridge, but as it was dark there being no day Coach on this road, I saw nothing of the Cornish Hills,-I have had a run all over the Hills above the Town today to try to blow away a sick headache.-The wind blows South or South west so it will be right against us and will likely give us an eight days voyage which is much more than I care for, they do not expect that we shall be able to get out of the Harbour before 10 or 11 tomorrow.-I have been up to the Castle “Pendennis” I think; it has a good command of the entrance to the Harbour with the Castle at the opposite point, but if Soldiers could get a landing it would be very easily taken- I see by the Newspapers that Chas Grey is going to Canada, I should think the Officers would be very glad of the Chance of getting something to do, I think they will have little difficulty in quelling the present disturbance, the Patriot party have been too hasty in rising before they were strong enough, but the Government will not soon be able to root out the seeds of discontent which are in the Country and be secure against other attempts of the sort.-as I lay in bed this forenoon I will shut up, and go to Church and bid you good bye, as it goes on for six.-It will be my last time in old England for


some time. Oporto 14th January 1838 My Dear Mother Since I last wrote to you I have got safe to this place, but you will want to know how and all about it. On Monday the 8th we started in the City of Londonderry-Captain Ingledew, the man who wrecked the Don Juan last Autumn on the Coast of Spain, a Leut in the Navy. For Company we had first Mr Mitchell going back to his regiment at Malta a Cousin of Sir John Pringle’s of Stichell, and knew all the Roxbro’ People well and a sporting man-Second Leut ?Stoppford a young Sailor going out to join his father who is fleet Admiral in the Mediterranean he had sailed with both Fred and George Grey-(1) third a Glasgow M.D. (Mr Finny) A well informed man going to the South for his health-fourth an Oporto Gentleman, Mr Cox an English-man who was afterwards of Great use to me-fifth-a clever shrewd young German about 30 who has been all over the world and speaks almost every language, he is with me here-sixth a Strange little Italian whose mother I am sure must have been a Monkey-Seventh a Leut of the Navy who had charge of the Mail, an upsetting little body, who kept every one over whom he had authority in Misery as well as himself, but Kept us in good fun-besides these we had a good many more. The wind blew terribly from the East which was exactly right, it was so high that if it had not we could not have gone to sea-the sea was desperate rough, I had to go to bed very soon, before we rounded the Lizard


and I saw nothing more that day except sundry fine Castles and Churches and Crows at the bottom of a blue utensil by the side of my berth. Tuesday 9th Heard that there was such a day and that the Bay of Biscay was terribly rough, but I knew nothing about it, and heard that there was only one of the passengers who could show fight, which was a sort of Consolation. Wednesday 10th Wind lower and sea smoother, most of us got up and on deck, I felt as if I had been in bed of a fever for a month, Eleventh-a fine day made land at 10 o’clock and kept down the Coast all day, a very hilly stony bare Coast, like some of the unproductive hills in Scotland, got to Vigo bay in the Evening, hung about for a Pilot for some time to take us up to the Town, which is 7 miles up the bay, which is closely inclosed in hills and was as smooth as a pond-at last after firing Cannon and burning blue lights, we heard a terrible Cackling as if of a great flock of Geese, which I thought we had disturbed, however this turned out to be a boat of the Pilot who soon came on board, we hooked his boat on, his men still keeping up the same everlasting all-at-once jabber, we came opposite the Town at 11 o’clock and several of us landed with the Captain and Mail Guard, went up to the Town through steep narrow streets, only fit for mules, a Cart never goes in them, we went to the Consuls house Signor Menendez a Spaniard and rapped at his door, he had gone to bed so we were all shewn into his bedroom where he lay and talked to us, he speaks English well.-Mr Cox thought we should have to go from Vigo to Oporto by land as the ship does not go into Oporto and the bar is so rough often that the boats can’t cross but


we heard that the other steamer coming home had communicated this morning and the night was fine so we fixed to return to the ship and try, I rather wished to go by land to see the Country but the ?German “tot it “ vould not be much pleasure to ride during two days on a “Moole”, so I gave it up.-we went on board at 1 o’clock and started. Twelfth-when we rose in the morning it was a thick fog with heavy rain, and blowing hard from the Nor’west, they said we had no chance to land, so we thought there was nothing for it but to go on to Lisbon, which was vexing, however towards noon it cleared up and calmed a little and when we got off the Port a boat came off for the Mail with 15 men making as much noise as usual; we then got in with our boxes, about a mile and a half from shore,-we found we could not cross the bar, so they rowed for a gap in the rocks about a mile from the mouth of the river; when they reached the surf they waited to take breath and till a big wave was far off, then they all at once and every one for himself began shouting to the uttermost extent of rapidity and loudness that his tongue and lungs would admit of, and above all the rest the two old Chaps at the helm, shouting swearing and gesticulating-“Foorca Foorca”-(I suppose to force her along) I knew it was the nature of them to do nothing without a noise, so I was only amused, but our German friend thought we were in terrible danger, and were sure to be swamped, but a large wave sent us dry onto the ?Land, we got out our boxes and had there to encounter an equal noise from women and boys wishing to carry our luggage, which they did to the Guard house at the mouth of the river (called the ?Teog) where we had to leave them and our passports neither of


which would be given to us that day tho’ we were very dirty and uncomfortable, never mind, we started to walk to Town which is 3 and a half miles. It was half past 4 when we landed, and by this time half past 5, it began to rain and grew dark and thundered and lightened in such a way as I never saw in England, I tried to carry an umbrella but the rain would have broken it to pieces, and the road was in many places over our knees in wet and dirt, but on we waded, till we got near the Town and had to come up a steep narrow Street, which was paved as all others are here with great blocks of Granite, with holes between that take you up to the Knee-well there were no lights and the water was coming down in a flood, so we had fairly to set to work and walk up in water 2 feet deep, running as strong as the “Glen”, we got through it at last, and Mr Cox shewed us to this Hotel called the English and gave us in charge to the Landlord, a little black Brazil man, with a Curly head and penny trumpet voice who speaks a few words of English,(but I must not go further without saying that the attention which Mr Cox paid to us, and the trouble he gave himself to help us and to get us made comfortable, was more than I ever experienced before from an entire stranger)-I got some grub for which I was very ready, for by this time it was 7 o’clock and being as wet as a trout, I went to bed, and slept all night without being bit, which is saying a great deal for a bed in the land of Bugs and Fleas. Saturday 13th We met at breakfast a lot of English and Germans etc-staying at the house, Mr Cox’s brother called to go with us to the Custom house to clear our goods, which we did with little trouble, although they are very strict and jealous with the English, and make them pay very heavy duties, we got our things home and made ourselves


like Xtians.-I went and called and delivered a letter to Mr Ellis a Scotch Gentleman in the Glasgow trade, a friend of some friends of Mr Jackson’s, he is a very nice quiet mild man, something of Mr Cargill’s stamp without any affectation or humbug about him-he is likely to be of great use to me,-then the German and I walked over the bridge of boats to the other side of the river, which part of the Town is called “Villa Nova” where most of the store house are, and went up to a Convent (the Sierra Convent) about 500 ft above the river, which was held by the Pedroites in the midst of the Miguelites,(2) who fired at it for a year and riddled it like a sieve without being able to take it,-in every part of the Town you see ruin and traces of the Siege, it has made terrible devastation, in all the open places which used to be filled with large trees, you see nothing but ruins and all the trees are cut down for fire wood.-From a height the Town looks pretty and irregular, and mixed with Green banks, and vines and orange trees covered with fruit tumbling off. All the Towns in this Country are built on a steep hill side, I can’t conceive why, unless that the heavy rains should wash away their filth easily. I have only seen two or three streets here where a Cart can go, and they are very rough, but so are the Carts, 3 planks laid together, the middle one the longest, which makes under the Pole, and an Ox is yoked to each side, they are beasts like the very hardest worst Sort of scotch runts with horns about 3 feet long and dun skins, the wheels are a lump of wood and they and the axle rumble round all together-but I think they like the mules best-We came home at Dusk and dined-There is no Theatre but some native thing that is not understandable.


Sunday 14th Mr Ellis called on his way to Church where we went together, it is a nice English Chapel where all the English service is performed without the singing-After Church he borrowed a horse for me and we rode for some miles into the Country, it is a fine undulating Country, and well cultivated, every inch, but divided into very small lots of fields, separated by numberless stone dikes, which look as if they had been built for the purpose of clearing the land of Stones, they are great ugly dikes like those from Ilderton to Roddam Dean which you can see through. The blockade has made terrible confusion in the outskirts of the Town where Miguel’s army were, most of the houses are in ruin. The weather here is mild and warm, more so than usual at this season, and much rain, we hear that the lightening has struck and injured several houses. They are likely to have a ?Kick up here before long, the Pedro party have split among themselves, it is brewing on the Spanish Borders, there is one man there who is condemned for many murders, at the head of 1,500 men, ready to join the party from whom he can expect the greatest advantage. The whole army of the Kingdom is about 5,000 men, and in coming home from Spain lately 2000 of them marched off to Saladana whom they expected to March upon Lisbon. The Douro is quiet enough-I find no dificulty here at all and in time expect to get all the information I want. Tell Corry if he comes here to walk always in the middle of the Street, lest he should get drowned in something worse than I did, they had been washing out the Public room and use spoiled Lemons instead of soap, just as I was stepping out of the Street Door, down came a whole tub full if this Lemonade-tell him to Keep out of the street at night alone,


or if he is there when the Soldiers challenge him, he must shout out “Amigo” or he will be lugged off to the watch house or if there is any sort of an insurrection, he may be shot without any further trouble, after he answers, the man with the long gun will cry “Passalargo” then one must go to the otherside of the Street or into the dirt to give him room Monday 15th In the morning called on Mr Johnston the Consul, he is a quiet man and Gentlemanly but has not much to say, we talked on general matters for ten minutes and bowed to each other, he has £700 a year. Called on Mr Graham who introduced me to the Factory House where there is a Library, Newspapers, dining rooms for public dinners, ball room and all these things for Public meetings, it is for the select amongst the English who hold their heads desperate high-while I am here I may go when I like, and am sure to be asked to all the parties-spent the rest of the day in wine places about my business, at 9 went to Mr Graham’s to a great dance of both English and Portugese, the English lasses were in so great demand that I as a Stranger had no chance to get Partners so I had to try my hand among the Natives, some can speak English and with some I had to try my bad French, in truth I think they are a better lot than the English here who hold them in great Contempt and I am told that I shall be in everlasting disgrace with the English ladies for paying more attention to the others, there are a lot of Miss Vauzellirs Portuguese girls of Dutch Extrication that were the best there-we came home about 3 o’clock and now I must shut up for the Post etc etc. Oporto 16th January 38 Dined with Mr Ellis with three of the young


men of his business house, and a Mr Clark who had been 10 years in Brazil, and is now going home to live in Scotland-we had a great deal of talk of diferent Countries, Governments, taxations, Government regulations etc etc Wednesday 17th Called on Dr Jebb to whom I had an introduction from General Shaw, but did not find him at home-called on the Messrs Cox and sat for some time picking up information, went on Change where all the English collect and Mr Graham and Mr Ellis introduced me to the Portugese Club and reading rooms. Started with an English and Irish Gentleman who are staying here, and walked out about 3 miles to Mr Vauzellers Country house (called a Quinta) where they do not live at this season, it has been terribly battered in the war, it is surrounded by high walls, when you enter there is a large yard; you then go into a Garden of about 3 acres, full of orange trees, laden with fruit which is tumbling off ripe, the Gardener let us eat and put as many in our pockets as we could, which you may be sure we did not fail to do, then there were all sorts of flowers, shrubs, lemon trees etc. Ponds full of Golden and silver fishes, and great wire houses full of little singing birds and water running in stone gutters by the side of every walk-then there is another yard of about 2 acres close walled and full of Rabbits of all Colours which are very tame, it is filled with fine old trees and Cork trees grown all over with vines-most of the trees are stuck full of Balls-it is a beautiful place and so different from an English Garden, we returned by another way to dinner, we always dine about 5 o’clock: being a regular party of 6 with usually several droppers in, we are at no loss as to getting the Evening put away. Thursday 18th Staid in till Change and


went to talk to people, then rode with Mr Ellis and MacCullagh who is staying in this house, son of a Merchant in Dublin, to the ?Feoz?Teoz the mouth of the river, and along the sea side, seeing all the fortifications and batteries which are on the top of every little rise-during the Siege the Inhabitants were not able to bring ships up the river, and they had only about half a mile of Coast to land things between the river and the Miguel lines, which Kept a continual fire on them, we saw the little house where Shaw lived, only about 60 yards from one of Miguel’s Posts, so they kept each other warm. In the evening 2 merchants came in and cracked with us-Mr Johnston the Consul called and left a card for me when I was out. Friday 19th After Change walked with some young wine merchants for a few miles to see the Glass works and Glass melting (the workmen are all English); it is not on a large scale but they do it well. In the evening my German friend Vermehren and I went to dine with the two Mr Cox, a wine merchant Mr Bold and a Gentleman in the Custom house were there, after dinner we all adjourned to Mr Bold’s house to get tea with his wife, I thought the German was up to most things, but was here rather surprised to see him sit down to sing, and play not only the Guitar but the piano beautifully. Saturday, After having spent the forenoon in Mr Sandeman’s stores which are the largest here containing 11.000 pipes,(3) I went to dine with Mr Bold of the house Knowles Procter and Bold, the Irishman and two Mr Cox were there, in the evening we went to a Ball at Mr Woodhouse’s, a wine merchant, who has a Portuguese wife and it was her birth day, he is a nice plain man, as like Jack Redpath as can be with a white wisp for a neck-cloth,


there were lots of people of both Countries and no end of dancing, after all it is stupid absurd work, I would not give one days hunting for fifty dances, only as a stranger one can see the people of the Country, no lady ever comes out into the street here unless they are going out on horseback with their friends, it looked very queer to see the ladies getting out of the Carriages, some of the flash ones drawn by mules but most by “nout” (Oxen) I have got an invitation to the Factory house Ball which is to be a grand concern, on Wednesday and no one can go except in a Carriage, I am thinking to have an ox ride for the fun of it, The ladies here have got into rather an absurd mistake about me-the Gentlemen know me well enough-but at Mr Graham’s a Lady with whom I had been dancing, asked Mr Mac Cullagh (a ridiculous Irishman) who I was and he told her that I was the Dutch Consul, and my name was Brown, this soon spread through the whole of them, and it may likely be some time before they all get put right again. Sunday Went to Church with Mr Ellis and walked into the Country with him for a Couple of hours, till dinner time. The weather here has been and is very wet and nasty every day, the wet season generally lasts till the middle of February. Monday Could do nothing for rain. In the Evening went to the Spanish Theatre, but could make neither head nor tail of it. Tuesday It was wet all day so ten or twelve of us cleared the room at night and played Blind-mans-Buff all night. Wednesday This was the ball night so we had to make smart and go, the Room was very large and the Company larger, for people could hardly find room to stow


themselves; they began dancing at 9, and the last I danced was at half past 4, all the Gentry of the Town both English and Portuguese were there, about 80 people could dance at the same time, they dance Quadrilles but not the same as in England, the nice lasses were generally engaged for half a dozen dances before hand, so they had to keep little books and write ones name and the number of the dance you engage them for. I never saw such a Country as this is for rain, it never ceases scarcely day or night, and always like a July thunder shower, it Keeps one from getting about or into the Country; sometimes it is very clear and hot with it but today it has been hailing all day. Mr Ellis has been very Kind in getting me invitations and introductions wherever I needed them, he does not go himself to parties as it is not long since his young wife died at the Birth of her first Child, every body says she was the nicest woman in Oporto, I don’t like the English ladies here, they are desperately aristocratical and high, the Gentlemen are mostly plain business men and like other people, many of them are Scotchmen, but they all Keep up a good deal of show and large house and lots of servants, but every thing costs much less here than in England. Friday I dined well with Mr Ellis and his household, who are four of his young men and bookkeepers and at 8 went with them to the amateur English Theatre where we had a play and a farce, both very well performed, all the performers were young Gentlemen who I knew, and the young lads were dressed up as ladies, but some of them had rather too loud voices and took too long steps. Saturday. We went to the Theatre to see an Italian Opera Company which has come here-the music is very good, and does not cost so much as in London we paid


a Crusada Nova 2 shillings and 3 pence Sunday after Church, it did not rain which was very unaccountable, so Mr Ellis and I went to ride for four hours, we went to the shore and up the Coast for 2 miles to the mouth of the river, and so home, the Country looks even now very well, the Corn is as far advanced as it is late in May with us, and most of the trees are evergreens, the pine, the Cork, orange, lime, lemon, the 3 latter loaded with fruit, either ripe or green for next years Crop, the Boxwood grows to a large tree here and solves a great difficulty which used to trouble my mind when I was like Hatty, how people could make tope (4) of Boxwood which was not higher than my Knee in the Garden. Though the Country here is in a very bad state, every one is safe enough, the town is now surrounded with troops brought by forced marches from Sameago?but nobody knows why unless to make a forced contribution from the Citizens to pay the troops, or to punish the troops who are in the town, for having risen for payment at Veiro?-after they rose and got pay, 2 of the ringleaders were shot, and the lines formed and every fifth man called out and flogged from which 18 have since died-the Banks and Merchants have come forward to help the Government with a small sum, so they have not declared themselves insolvent as was expected last week, but it has given such a fright that no business is going on and no one will take the Bank paper, I am very comfortable here, and am never at a loss for Company either through the day or in the evenings, but I am tired of their wet weather, and it is worse here than rain for the roofs and Balconies reach almost over the street, so you find wherever you go a water spout coming down on your head-the constant damp makes it feel very cold and it


is not the Custom here to have a fire except after dinner, for comfort in-doors there is nothing like a Cold Country. I shall start for the Douro as soon as the weather will admit, the hills are all covered with snow, I see by the newspapers you have a very hard winter at home. Tuesday-After Change I rode with Mr Ellis a few miles out, but this is dull, rather there is very little to see in the neighbourhood and the roads are all as bad as at the top of Woodend or below Felkington I dined with him and family and a German Merchant of this Town, and went with them to the Italian Opera, I can have a seat there whenever I like now, in Mr Wilde’s box, a merchant and broker here; his wife is a Portuguese but speaks English very well, it is his horse I generally ride with Mr Ellis. There is scarcely one thing in the town worth naming more than another but the Sierra Convent on a hill at the villa Nova side which stood such a battering, and on every little hilltop you find remains of batteries and ditches, most of Shaws battles were a mile or two out on steep rocky hills and among houses and Gardens, I have been reading his account of the Siege. The river is very much flooded with the long continued wet weather which now however begins to break up and look better. Thursday After Change and business MacCullah and I having invitations to the Portuguese assembly as we were strangers, went to see it, it was all a Portuguese Company, is the second rate one belonging to the radical party and the present Government, they call it the Sociedada Civilizadora, or the Civilizing Society but the other party call them the “mijaro” society which you


may interpret if you can, the great Portuguese General DesSantes was there, he who has been levying contributions and keeping the army in order, he is a red faced fiery eyed man, wears his hair cut close, and his mustaches about 6 inches long, and his beard down to his breast, he does not shave any part of his face. Friday-being a Close holiday for some saint or another, every body went out of Town, a lot of the Ladies and Ladies men were going to the Convent Grasigue????(or some such name) 4 Leagues off (1 League = 4 miles in this Country) Ellis and I wanted to go alone, but he found his horse was wanted for Miss Graham, so he having to ride one of theirs, he could not well get quit of the party there were the Nobles, Gents and Ladies, the oldest and highest headed of the English families here, a proud set-Mr Warre, Holdworth, Miss Smith, Miss Harris etc etc Ellis and myself and two or three more Gentlemen, I rode a very fine Irish mare of Dr Jebbs which he never rides because he can’t, and nobody else likes to do it for him-the road to the Convent is by lanes and through a woody Country, which looked very beautiful, the day was like one in June in England and the high hills in the back ground, crowned with snow sparkling in the sun. The Convent is now empty, it is a very large and fine building, the Gardens belonging to it are nearly a League round and full of orange trees covered with fruit, the Ground is now farmed and used to grow Opium-we had some grub, and made an empty stone basin which used to be a fish pond, our dining room, and the raised part in the middle which used to be the Cascade, the dining table, we sitting all round the stone edge, we got home at Dusk by another road


in the evening Mr MacCullagh and I went to a party at Mr John Atkinson’s, it was a young party of a lot of families who have not come out yet and intimate friends, under which class I suppose we were placed, there was no stiffness and every body inclined for fun, we got home about 2 o’clock. Sunday 4th After Church Mr Ellis and I rode to St Cosmos, a sort of Church on the top of a high rock like Edinbro Castle, it is four miles from the Town, from it there is a beautiful view of the Country around; which is very rich and well wooded, and the great barren hills about Amarante in the distance. The weather is now very fine and dry but Cold, except in the middle of the day, when the sun is bright. One great pest in this Country is the number of beggars, you are pestered at every turn with such lots of horrible objects lying about the roads, they have no poor laws or relief for the poor, or hospitals for the lame and those who sit in bowls, walk on their hands etc etc There is an hospital here for foundling children, which has a turning box in the wall where any one may put a Child and turn the box, when it is taken in, and no one knows where it came from, it is said that they have so many more than they can provide for , that they bleed a number of the weak ones to death, but this I cannot vouch for. Yesterday I was employed in getting my passport and making ready for a start up the River, this was the night of Mr Warre’s ball at the Fsoz?Hoz?, we went to him in an ox carriage, an ox is called a “Boye” here-we asked the Chap how many hours we should be on the road, he said he would send us good “Boyes” and they would take us in an hour and a half So


about 2 hours before we wanted them the Boyes came and at the proper time we started-viz Mac Cullagh, young Ormerod, Atkinson, Cox and myself, we did the three miles in an hour and a half which was good work, there was a very nice party all English except the daughters of the Visconda de Baya, and the Vauzellers, who are reckoned as much English as Portuguese, no one could tell that they were not natives of England, on our way home we had a Boye race with other two Carriages and by this help we came home in an hour and 25 minutes, we had one man to walk before their heads and drag them along and another with a long stick with a jag at the end to drive them, I should think the Carriage was built 300 years since, I hope I may hear from you on my return from the Tras-os-montes and Minho. Oporto 19th February 1838 Dear Mother –On my return from the Douro I found your letter with others from Mr Selby-I started for the Douro on the morning of the 7th February with MacCullagh, our out-fit was rather a queer one, we had hired the night before mules for ourselves and one for the Guide to carry our traps, I borrowed overalls and Saddle bags from Edward Atkinson, and M.C. from Bold, we only took a few shirts and stockings, we set off at Mule pace, about a League in the hour, they are not nice to a shade about the length of a League, it is about 4 miles but if convenient they often add a mile to it. I had a great black mule 15 hands high, and a saddle nearly two feet higher, with great things fore and aft, so that I should have been puzzled to tumble off, we had also breastplates and breechings and


as many straps and buckles as would yoke a Cart , and stirrups like wooden boxes, mine was a very fast walker and kept the other ones going-M.C.’s was a red “masha” as they call the he mules, mine was a she one, we went on for a while without anything strange, to Vollonga 2 Leagues, when we pulled up to give the mashes each a bite of straw, on the strength of which they went on stoutly. There is nothing about Vollonga particular except a great Barn looking Church, there are coal mines in that district, the coal is not good, but is used in Oporto-we then went on to Ponta Ferreira a place with a river and a bridge, where there has been a good deal of fighting and on to Baltar 2 Leagues, there we stopped and fed the Mashas out of a dish with a lot of yellow bread of the Country made of Indian Corn soaked in wine, which they lick up greedily, we then went to Penafiel 2 Leagues more, by this time it was after 4 o’clock, so we put up for the night in the best Hotel. This part of the Country is well cultivated and only a little hilly and well scattered with wood, but the roads are terribly bad, up to the Knees in mud most of the way. We ordered dinner which after some time was brought up, turnip top broth, fowls etc and lots of apples, figs etc, all went on well enough till night-we went to bed about 11 in a bed room with two beds, six feet high, they looked clean enough so we lay down without scruple, but I had only been a few minutes sleeping, when I awoke scratching, and in a fever, and seeing M.C. up, I called out “what are you doing, is it time to get up”? “no” says he, “by the powers it’s the flays I’m catching, it is only 12 o’clock”; I got up and looked into my bed and Oh! it was Black they


were jumping in every place, and I was one red blister, we shook all our clothes and lay for a while on the floor, thinking to get rid of them, but they Kept us in employment for many evenings afterwards, till we got so expert at catching them, that no one daring to bite had a chance to escape. Thursday 8th We dressed and started at 4 o’clock and rode 4 Leagues to Amarante, which we reached about half past 8, at first the morning was fine but before we got half way, it became very stormy and wet, we went to a house to buy the Guide a straw Cloak used by the lower Classes in this Country, but we were obliged rather to put up with the wet outside than the smoke in. They have no chimneys here and all the smoke after filling the house so that you cannot see a yard, comes out by the door. Before reaching Amarante my mule fell off a Bank with me and came on my leg which rather bothered me for a day or two, they are not such sure footed things as I had thought, M.C.’s gave him 3 tumbles, they go very well over stones and rocks, but can’t get through dirt at all, they are sure to go on their noses. In passing through this Town the Natives were not a little tickled with my dress, which consisted of my white Mac-Intosh and my great Coat hung over my back, with the sleeves tied round my neck, my Cloak gave great surprise everywhere, I dare say they thought it a very useless thing. We rested here to give the mashas bread and wine for half an hour, during which time we eat a loaf of bread which we had bagged and a glass of brandy and water which we had brought from Oporto, while we were there in came a man for breakfast and in a moment the menena (girl) whipped up a Cock which Strutted


about the floor popped him over head in a pan of boiling water, and held him there till he was drowned or scalded, this also made the feathers come off very easily, after which she cut him into a few pieces and plumped him again, hardly dead into another pot among turnip tops and in ten minutes more he became good broth, they say the scalding them to death makes them tender, I know not if Mrs Dalgairns is up to that. Amarante is a Town of considerable size with a good bridge over a river, I think the Tamiega, with curious pillars at each end, this Town is situated at the foot of the high mountains which divide the Minho from the province of Traz os Montes (which being interpreted is across or beyond the mountains) those which we had to pass, we began the climb which was 3 Leagues (long ones) all up hill to Quintilla, we passed no town or village, but some lone houses, the hills are very high and steep, the road winds round the sides, in some places cut in the rock, sometimes with such a precipice below that you could hardly distinguish any-thing at the bottom, or see to the top of the hill above, the hollows are all watered meadows, a little way up it is divided into small fields growing Corn, which is also watered at this time of the year, the fields all divided by stone walls and planted with rows of Cork trees, higher up the hill sides are nothing but stunted oaks or bushes and flocks of Goats and a few bad sheep, but very few, and nearer to the top are nothing but rocks and great Cairns, looking very wild, in many places the road is so rough that the mules can hardly climb from one rock to another or scramble through between them. We reached Quintilla and dined and went on to Ragoa three Leagues more-from Quintilla we began to go “in Bank” (downhill) and when we got to the foot


nearly 2 Leagues , we came to Mazoa Freo (Gold House) where the wine Country begins, and after passing it ¼ of a mile we came in sight of the Douro again, the Country here looks very curious, the hills on each side of the river are high and tolerably steep, slanting from the rivers edge backwards and all planted with vines, made up in terraces faced with stone walls, from 6 to 10 feet high, at this season the vineyards look like nothing else than a burnt whin Cover, all black stumps. We progressed to Ragoa-which we reached just before dark and went to Mr Bold’s house, now be it understood, that no one in all that Country speaks a word of English but Mr Franklin and his son Joakim, they are Commissioners and buy wine etc for merchants here, all the large merchants here have stores in Ragoa to gather their wine into before bringing it down, and as there is no hotel in the Town, they have all rooms connected with their stores to live in during their visits to buy wine, Mr Bold had written to Mr Franklin before hand to have his house prepared for us and clean beds ready, so we went there, Mr F lives at the other side of the river and had gone over, no matter, we made them get Grub for us and made our selves at home. In the morning Mr Franklin and his son came, I had a letter in my pocket to him from Cox and M.C. one from Bold desiring him to give us all the information, attention and help he could, which he did to the letter, he or his son were always with us, we dined with him twice, nothing very particular took place during our stay at Ragoa which was five whole days and two bits, we went about the wine districts getting what information we could, returning one day by Lamego, one of the largest towns in that part of Portugal there is a Church


on a hill with steps up to it built all like those we used to build with Bricks or cards, in length half of a mile. On another day we went out of our way to Villa Real, to find a place to sleep and put up the Mashas, young F was with us, it came very wet in the Evening and all our Clothes were wet, we got to an Inn with one large room like an empty barn with 4 large windows, with not only no glass windows, but no window sashes, so there was no way of keeping out the Cold, we got something made of Garlic to eat and went to bed to endure another nights torture on three beds ranged along the side of the room furthest from the ventilaters, we durst not lie all night in wet Clothes, so we went to bed and got warmed, in half an hour it was much to hot to lie, then jump up to Cool and scratch, then got in again to warm, we passed the night without a wink of sleep and we deserved no Credit for making an early start in the morning for the wine Country and Ragoa we thought of crossing the hills from that straight to Amaranta but they would not let us, it is the second highest in Portugal, the tops are covered with snow, and the wolves are very hungry just now. Ragoa is about ½ the size of Wooler the hotel where the mules lived had only one room and that contained all the animals with 2 and 4 legs and the smoke too, I never saw such a place, there are no fewer that 3 Chimneys in Ragoa, the roofs of the houses almost touch across the street, the people who lived in the under part of the house found us with food, charging us as if we had been at a hotel. Villa real is a place of some size, a City about as big as Wooler, with a large Square and market place, is situated among high Hills and the road to Ragoa is very


wild , winding along the sides of precipices and up and down all sort of perpendicular places. The two days after leaving Ragoa journeyed back, riding the rough road between Quintilla to Amaranta by torch light, there we slept but not in the beds; we intended to have gone from thence to Braga to see that Country which is the finest in Portugal, but the weather came again so wet and stormy that we gave it up, buying ourselves the Grass Cloaks , which are queer Esquimaux looking things made of Rushes and Grass, they are very light, but turn no end of wet , we got safe back, bringing some of our ?Penafiel friends with us, but stripped to the skin and sent everything to the wash, I don’t care about bad food or weather but oh! the fleas and Bugs! I have found the use of a small tooth comb; there is not a looking Glass in the Douro Country , I got one shave by guess, but came to Oporto with a six days beard on me; the last two days as we wanted to ride fast, ie: a jog trot, I gave M.C. my mule for his masha but this only proved what I have long thought, that a bad horseman was little the better for having a good horse-You will wonder how we got thro’ for language, for M.C. could not speak a word more Portuguese than myself and the Orieiro (Guide) did not know a word of English, but we were never at a loss, I had taken the precaution to take a pocket Dictionary and before starting we knew all things in the eating line, and it is a very easy language to understand, they have a rough determined way of speaking and every word in a sentence comes out plump by itself, and not all rumbled together like the French and English, or a Cart load of stones. Last Saturday (17th February) I dined with Wild, he is a Leeds man and Knows Baines, Richardson etc his Wife


is a Portuguese but speaks English well which is a wonder here, we went to the opera, but in coming back saw an awful sight, a poor fellow was murdered in the middle of the public Street, we did not see the blow, but saw the man directly afterwards, he fell on his back, we all ran round him, he gave two or three gasps and was quite dead, he was stuck with a knife through the heart, a few people gathered round him and were carrying him to a Church, but as for trying to catch the murderer, or find who did it was quite another story, that was no ones business, and if he were taken, there is not an authority in the land who dared to bring him to justice, further than sending him to pave the streets with a Chain to his leg. Oh! they are a bad vile set here from the highest to the lowest, it is no wonder the Vauzellers are worshiped in this Country, I believe they are the only good people in it, it makes one have to be cautious to keep from being in the streets alone after dark. I think it likely I may leave this soon. The Lisbon and Oporto steamer is broken so there is no way to get to Lisbon but by riding on, I think it will be better to ride to Vigo which is 3 days shorter and through a much finer Country and take the English steamer to Lisbon, on returning here we found our Croney Haire gone to Vigo to go to Gibralter and Mr Donaldson of London come, he had been taken on to Lisbon, then took the steamer was carried past again to Vigo and then tiring of this fun took the mules and rode here, he is a pleasant sort of Chap and plays the flute all the evening. Up the Douro the Boyes (oxen) all pull by the heads, have a pad fastened across the brow by the horns, to this the end of the pole is fixed, and they either pull or hold back by it, they are much finer Boyes than those here


thick short legged well conditioned chaps, they are quiet docile things, and can take a Cart up or down any perpendicular place, here they pull by a plank fastened on the front of their shoulders, they say the shaking of the carts on the rough stones in the streets would hurt their heads, I wonder if Boyes heads ever ache! Yesterday after Church I rode Mr O’Burns’ horse for a few hours, a good Irish horse and jumps stone Dikes well, I doubt Langlands will give up hunting now his Grey horse is killed, I see all the English papers as they come out, to see what goes on at home. The weather here is pretty good again but they expect the wet season to continue for a month longer. If letters from Mr Selby do not change my plans, I think it probable that I may start for Lisbon next week and get there the first week in March. February 20th I have just time before the Express goes off to say I have your letter of the 6th and am glad to learn that you are all well and in good heart. Yesterday after Change I rode with E. Atkinson and John Ormerod by the Feoz to Lessa a nice little Town 6 miles up the Coast where people go to wash themselves in Summer, returned by the high road dined with Mr Wild, Miller a Broker and Packet agent and a lot more on board the Henry Hoile , Captain Fergusson –from Liverpool, after which I came home and dressed for the assembly at the Portuguese Society, the first rate one, the rooms are good and the Company very large and respectable not being able to talk much Portuguese I got a long French lesson from the Miss Fearreas and ?De Bells, the Fearreas are nice people and one of the first portuguese families here. I am almost sorry to leave this place.


I feel ten times more at home here than in London, I know most of the most respectable people in the town and can go to their houses when I please. The mans new warming pan (Joyce’s) may be a humbug but another may be invented which is not, for my own part I should prefer hard Gold, or better still stones and earth, to the black stones under the earth Tell Hatty that I am not in the land of Red and Green Parrots and a Gibralter monkey is too big to bring her-love to all Oporto 21 February/38 Dear Mother, The horses in this Country are not good, low and wooden, bad actioned slow brutes, but they have good kind of ponies about 12 hands, very like the Highlanders, which go well on rough Ground, Spanish horses are often used, look showey but are badly made, long good necks, but the Carriage of the head is spoiled by the constant use of the long Curb bits, long backs, long bad thighs, and long fore legs coming out of a narrow Chest, with no arms, bad shanks and badly set on feet which they use more for throwing the dirt over their rider, than for getting over the Ground, but this is also much caused by Keeping their noses against their breast with the vile bits. For Carriages mules and Boyes are most generally used, except by some of the very highest families, the Carriages are like old state Coaches or chaises of the fifteenth Century. The women of this part of Portugal are not particular for good looks, they have all fine bright black eyes and black hair, often high cheekbones, sallow skins and large mouths are generally short than otherwise and tall across The lower Classes


wear round crowned Millers Hats with brims from 12 to 18 inches in breadth, with tassels all round, they also carry all their worldly wealth in Gold chains round their necks, you will see on a market day the women coming into Town with 6 valuable Gold Chains twisted about them, the women of the middling Class have here a very strange dress it is from head to foot like a great black shroud, the hood which comes across the head is made stiff, and this and the robe are all of one piece, at first I took them to be nuns Yesterday, I rode after Change with Ellis and returned to dinner to meet his family party, Mr Wild and a German (Friedland), his (Mr E’s) wife must have been a very beautiful lovely woman, there is a large picture of her in his bedroom, his little boy looks puny, it seems Mrs Ellis died of a disease of the heart and before marrying the Doctor told her it would either kill or cure her, however it took the wrong turn. They say Mr Graham’s nieces are both going to be married, (because they have each ten thousand pounds) the eldest 19 to Charles Noble 30-the youngest 17 to old Warre nearly 3 times her age with a head as white as snow, albeit, they are not bad sort of girls, if the Miss Nobles don’t spoil them. 22nd Last night Donaldson, McCullagh and I went to Feledgate’s? Ball, the first after their wedding, so it was a very splash concern, all the English and the high Portuguese they have a very good house and large Gardens and Grounds, in the Garden they have the largest magnolia Tree known, George the fourth sent his gardener over on purpose to see it. Next day I got my traps bundled up, bid my friends good bye and went down to the Feoz to be in readiness for the steamer should she call off, Hurst of This


Town was after the same, and Jones of London there, waiting to go to London, McCullagh, Evans and Edward Atkinson and Stove?Stone? to whose father I have a letter in Lisbon, Ellis, Wild and Miller the Packet agent, came down to dine and Keep us Company, they all went home at night leaving me and Millers nephew Tom, to take charge and go off with the Bags, we spent most of the night in the pilots watch Box and wandering about rather than encountering the beds, but in the morning the sea was too rough to go off and we had to return rather wiser than we went, you might as well be at Botany Bay as here, there is no getting to or from it, Vigo is full of ships since the beginning of December, which have not yet been able to get in, this turned out as wet a day as possible with high wind, it does not know how to rain in England, In the Evening we all went to the English Amateur Theatre which is very well considering, and as one knows all the Chaps it makes a good deal of fun, the night was so dark that McCullagh and the others of this house lost themselves and were brought home by some of the Guards with the long guns, I had been sitting with young Pedro Vauzeller and got the good of his servant and torch I am now at a loss what to do, there is no use in waiting for the bar being good, and the weather is so stormy and wet that a six days ride-through bad wet roads and often no place to sleep in except among the Mashas and Boyes is not very comfortable. I expected M’C to go with me to Lisbon but he is in love with Miss Harris and can’t get away. Vigo 1st March-Since writing the above I have had some rough work, but to begin where I left off


On Saturday 24th February I went to tea To Mr Atkinsons they are Cumberland people. Mr Atkinson lived for some time at Falmouth with Mr H Morton when he was on his way to Lisbon about the year 1809. Mrs A had a brother David .(name missing) who learned farming at Fenton(5) and lived near Sir James Graham’s, he died a few weeks since, they know the Churches etc , they are very Kind sort of people, Edward is going to Liverpool to live soon. On Sunday morning I made up my mind to start from this place, I thought of riding through with the express, but I was advised not, the mules could not go so quickly with my traps, so I had to start early on Monday Morning. After Church I went like every one else to see the river which was never known to be so large except in 1822 and then it was not so strong as the bar was then closer, the bridge was taken away and many boats sunk and several lives lost, many of the ships were deserted thinking they would be carried away. I dined at home, buying overall and a stout hat of the Country and engaging mules by the help of Mr Wild, I drank tea with him and got a bottle of Brandy without which no one should travel in this Country, the wine is not drinkable and the water often not good, and if after being wet all day, one takes ill at night that would be the only Doctor within reach. I supped with Ellis-borrowed from him a great horsemans Cloak went home, packed up, and ordered the boys to call me at 3 have breakfast at ½ past and the mules to be ready to start at 4 o’clock which were all attended to, on coming down next morning I found all our party, with Senor George Gerslager Assembled in Cloaks and shirts to see me off giving me charges to let them know how I got on. I had 3 mashas one for myself


one for my big trunk , which rode very uncomfortably and was always twisting round and the 3rd for the Orieiro and my small traps-the morning was terribly wet, I was anxious to get on that day 10 leagues to Vianna where Charles Noble was staying, they have a business establishment there, to supply all the Northern interior of Portugal with salt fish-Settled to get a good nights quarters from him, the first 4 Leagues was very bad road, a regular belly deep job, it took us till 10 o’clock to do it, we then stopped at a single house to feed the mules and dined on some boiled Beef, we then started and rode all day not within sight but within roar of the sea, I this day Kept in the rear as I had no mind to be buried in the quicksands, which were very numerous, tho’ it was contrary to my rule of always if possible being first over a rotten “fence” or log, we passed many large woods where the man (no thanks to him) takes care to show where all the murders and robberies had been committed, in passing one of them I heard him roar out and thought we were in for something, but it was only my trunk falling on the Ground from the girth having broken; while at dinner a man came in and told us the river at Barca was too big to cross in the boat and when we came in sight of it 3 leagues further, the man wanted to put up for the night, but I wanted to be on, and used my eloquence accordingly-“Vianna esta noite-passa passa????” he shrugged his shoulders, “Non, signor, na passa, noita aqua resta esta noite a quie” but when there is a will there is a way, so at him again “ Pusiqua non passa? Si si a Vianna esta noite, pressa en barca trazos (aqua Diablo”) and with such like jargon he came to and moved on saying “Poi senor estar boin” but looking as if he thought “estar malo” we


went to the river and after shouting for a while “O barca O barqueiro” for the bark and the barkman, they turned out and brought over a great long cart looking thing, into which we rode and crossed, we had 3 leagues more, the last mile or more before reaching Vianna is along a wooden bridge or pier which goes twisting through a lake which is formed by the Lima whenever it is flooded; we got in at 7 and went to Nobles House and Knocked, the man came down and cried “Que est” I said “Amigo do Senor Noble, esta el caza do Signor Noble? ouvra fase favoire” so he opened, I asked “Senor Carlos esta ca,” “No senor” said he but told me he was living there, but had gone out to Cha (tea) at another Caza so I sent my card to him, he came in a few minutes and gave me supper, he had been at a Masquerade Ball and asked me to go, I had little inclination, but did that I might not Keep him away, it was a throughother concern I was in the dress I had been riding in and unshaved, I got him away at 12 o’clock, and went to bed: he started early in the morning for Barcellos giving me a letter to Antonio Goze Xeira at Caminha who was to give me one to someone at Guardia where he thought we should cross into Spain. 27th February-We did not start till 9 and went by the sea side 3 Leagues to Caminha which stands half a mile from the mouth of the river Minho from which the Province takes its name and which divides Spain from Portugal, the man there told us we could not Cross at Guardia but must go on 4 Leagues to Vallenca giving us a letter to a person there Jose Antonio da Santa Viga who was to give bond for the mules recrossing into Portugal, we crossed a river which Joins the Minho near the Town in a Bark and continued up the south Bank of the Minho this


is the finest vale I have seen, the hills slope back very gradually, the low ground growing corn two feet high, the fields divided by fences and rows of trees, the slope well wooded and the rough rocky hills rising behind, and every here and there a temple or Convent perched on the most inaccessible outlandish point to be found, for the use I suppose of the hamlets???, the river was also flooded over the banks and was studded with islands and trees which made it look better than usual; I observed up both sides of the River many towers and forts, some of which were very strong, especially that of Villa Nova do Silvira the afternoon was fine and I enjoyed the ride very much till 1 League from Vallenca there the misery began, we met some people who told us that a bridge was impassable across some brook running into the river, on this account we turned off to a road, which passes through the hills, it grew dark and the man lost his way, he got confused and would do nothing but swear at the Mashas and wanted to come back but he Knew as little about the road back as forward, I was at a loss what to do, I bethought me to turn my Knowledge of crossing a Country and my bumps of locality to account, the wind had been west all day and I saw no reason for its having changed I set my back to it and by the flashes of lightening took my point from the end of the high Hill which I thought must slope to the river, I set off and called Avanco we rode for some time across an open bare Moor and at length came to a track which in a little brought us to a road and soon after to a house, when on asking I found to my great joy we were only ½ a league from Vallenca but our joy did not last long, a few minutes further we were told that another bridge would not pass, what was


to be done? we could not go forward, I would not go back and we were told there was no other way, I wanted to stay at the house where we were, but they would not let us and there was no place for the mules, while the parley was going on some people came past and said we could pass at a place 2 leagues in the mountains, we tried to get a Guide but could not for some time the night was so bad, at last a man said he would go if well paid, I asked him “Por quanta Costa a Vallenca”? “Sis testoons” said he (3/-) I closed at once with him and would have done the same for 3 times as much, he went to get a Companion and with each a long pole they set off before us using the poles to jump over the water and went along at a wonderful pace considering their heavy woodensoled shoes without any heels, we went across open moors for some time, then came to deep dark rocky glens, it looked very nasty, and the thought came across me how easily our Guides might rob us here, and I confess I did not quite feel easy and laid my plans accordingly, I could not be sure of my man fighting for me, but was certain he would not take part against me, so I had only two to take care of-regardless of the wet I kept my arms free and “Bengalla” handy (stick) and a sharp eye on my friends thinking if they missed the first blow their long poles would be of no use to them, but as it turned out I blamed them wrongfully, after long wandering they brought us safe, all the way we heard guns firing and horns blowing and dogs barking to keep away the wolves, which we heard chiming? To each other on the hills (by the bye let George Darling and Sinclair know what I am about, I have nothing to write to them about not having had the luck


to meet with a wolf or anything between that and a Rat, should I “light in “ with a wild Boar in Spain, or any true sport, they are sure to hear from me) On reaching Vallenca we found the gates shut, the Guard inside would not open them, I offered money but he said that the Key had gone to the Governor’s house, the mule man wanted to go to a Stelage 2 leagues on the Braga road but I was mad and regularly done up besides having had a long day the day before we had not rested for a moment all this day except at the door of a hut for the man to get a Copa de Vinho and I of Aqua Frio. I asked for a Caza aqui (here) so we went to a hut a quarter of a mile off, such a place as I never was in before, it was now between 9 and 10 o’clock, I asked for Jantara and forthwith a Cock died a hot water death, and was soon dressed, I was so much more comfortable than I had been for some time past that I felt quite happy, there were about a dozen of us of all ages and sorts, we all sat round the fire, boiling the Cock, I drying my feet and Keeping them all as noisy as Crickets teaching them the names of all sorts of things, the Guide and I fed as usual together, and went to bed in a loft above the mules, with 2 great open windows but we had plenty of ?“haps”, I could not help going to bed, so to escape the biting the next day, I undressed hanging up my things where they were out of reach of the fleas, and slept in my M’Intosh, though I was tired I could not sleep, it beat Penafiel hollow and the thunder was like to shake the old house down, the rain was very heavy all night, in the morning I shook my Cloak out of the window and rubbed myself down and so Kept tolerably clear of Company, the man told me the river was too large to pass the Mules,


we walked into Vallenca and found this was the case, I was Kept running about for some time to get my passport signed, I sent my mules back to Oporto and took a small boat across to take my Chance of driving a passage to Vigo, we landed in Spain at Tuy half a mile up the river, the officer examined my passport and carried my things on to the Alfandiga to be searched, this they did quickly and leniently. I then made a man carry them to a Stelage do Cous Mashes which he did-I engaged with the master for 2 mules to Vigo for Quarto dururos por todo (four dollars he paying expenses of Mules and the duddy boy who ran and drove the trunk mule). They wanted me to “resta a quiesta noite” and told me the road was bad at night, but I told them “Na Senor aranga mashes, prepa a Vigo por Vapor (steamer) a Lisboa” so I started, nothing of much note happened, the first league was through a nice Country, the second and third over high, rough hills, and the rain and wind were very bad till coming in sight of Vigo Bay when we go down hill for another league in a fine Country, the only circumstances of note were the mule lying down because she was not let to go the wrong road, the trunk was so high above her back that she could not get up till I lifted and the boy Kicked and called her many pretty names-and at another place I was stopped by the revenue officers who asked me what I had, I told them nothing but Ropas (Clothes) and asked if they wished to open the box, they said I might pass and gave me a salted foot of a pig which one was eating, so we parted good friends, I reached this place yesterday, Wednesday, at 6 o’clock, put up at Ricot’s Stelage, went to Don Leopoldo Menendez the Packet Agent


and English Consul and found that the last Packet was 6 days late so today there are two due, there is a Gentleman has been here 10 days waiting to go to Lisbon-I hope this will not be my case-The Packet from Lisbon which takes the letter to London has just come into the Bay, so I must close. Vigo March 1st /38 My last letter was closed in great haste as the Steamer called 6 hours before she was expected-This is a little dull place, I almost wish I had gone to Lisbon at once but people would not let me, the road gets such a bad name and the estafette does not travel at present, I am in a queer house there are 2 Portuguese and a Spaniard who speak French so I am not quite alone, but I have often to help the French out with a bit of Portuguese, we all sleep in Alcoves at the side of the dining room, the grub is worse than anything I have yet had, the Café and bread bad and the memtaika (butter) not eatable The Bay is full of Ships about 30 for Oporto and all those which were here when I last passed, the Cameleon Brig of war is here has been trying for some weeks to get into Oporto to take care of the English and their interests. Tho’ the words used by the people here are the same as the Portuguese I have much more difficulty in understanding them, the pronounciation is different. The Country People in Portugal are troublesomely polite, everyone you meet pulls his hat down to his Knee and expects you to do the same which in a wet day is not agreeable and withal detrimental to the


tile, and to a man you say “passa nuito?/minto? bien” (pass on safely) to a woman “Viva Senhora” or if she is young and pretty “Viva boneta menina” which means Child or little Girl, but is used to all as a term of Friendship, or even among Ladies in familiar Conversation, you here them when wishing another to attend, say “Chit menina” Chit is an amusing word to strangers but is in universal use in Portugal to call attention and is heard to a great distance, for a boy “Chit o Rapaz” or a man Chit o Senhor-I do not think the Portuguese are naturally a bad people if they were well educated, they are civil and well dispositioned and obliging but are idle from having little inducement to work, living being cheap and their wants few, and from their ignorance and want of education do not try to improve their condition, they have many faults which idleness will always lead to, they are treacherous and intreguing and handy with the Knife, but the Government is to be blamed for this. The money of Portugal is troublesome, that used in reckoning and Keeping accounts is an ideal money Milrees and Rees, there is no such Coin, then it requires a long calculation to make out how many Cruzada Novas or testoons or vintins so many Rees make, for the Ree being so small a sum, (20 in a penny), you have such a number of figures to work upon; the Spanish money seems much better ordered being all in Decimal divisions, like the French, the different Coins fit each other much better. On the second of March, as I was dressing, the steam boat came into the bay, the “Tagus” Capt Symons, the Londonderry which started


the week before, had not been heard of; I went to bid Don Leopaldo farewell, went on board and we were off by 10 o’ clock, there were on board young Bell, (son of “ ?Josh Wilson and Bell)” going to Gib. And Alexandria on the spree-Mr Mc Kinnell Merchant of London going to Cadiz-a native of Kirkcudbright, (he tells me John Churche’s family had a sad disapointment, two of the lasses were to have been married on the same day one to a very rich E.Indian who died on his way home) A Russian Mr Burton, I think, from Constradt ( we always call him Nicholas, so I am not sure of his right name) he is an Engineer speaks Scotch and was at school with Dr Cowan-the Lt in charge of the mails, Miles a decent little ugly old fellow, from, the “Lang toon a’ Kirkcaldy” Lady Charlotte Bacon with Governess and troop of Children, daughter of Earl Oxford going to join the General, she had been in Porto during the siege, and had many questions to ask, of People and things there, a queer talking woman and I think has rather “a wants”-Mr Hutchinson, his wife and Children, an American, has been Consul at Lisbon for twenty years, and several more of less note; I was terribly sick all the way-we made the Rock of Lisbon on the 3rd and I got up to see it, the Coast is very barren;-from that to the mouth of the River for some miles are several of Wellington’s lines, we entered the river at Fort St Julian at 6 0’C PM ran up in smooth water which put me to rights to Belem Castle, this is the most troublesome Port in the World, we were not allowed to land, next morning at 8 the Officers came on board, we ran up to the Town, and after a great deal of bother were permitted to land, but by this time it was


noon, and as the vessel remains here 24 hours, Bell, the “Emperor” and McK also landed-We came to Mrs Dekelem’s Hotel, as good as any in England, she is an English woman, it is the only tolerable one in the Town, we hired horses and rode about the Town and neighbourhood all day, saw the Viaduct which brings the water 16 miles from Cintra to supply the Town and is really a fine thing, built on arches in many places 240 feet high, I wonder how such a thing was finished in Portugal, only the fools might have done it at much less cost by laying a few pipes below ground, saw the Queen’s palace, a stupid brick thing in the Town, with a great Barn of a Convent sitting on its back, saw Don Pedro’s Pallace at Bellam a very large square building, which would be very fine, but as usual is not finished, and not likely to be. There are only 2 squares in the Town, and those are very poor, the river is very very fine indeed, and the Town looks wild and irregular from it, but when you come in, it is the dirtiest, poorest, most tumble down, bad Town I ever saw, every house or building which had been thrown down by the Quakes or by fire or war within the last 50 years is left just as it fell, left to the pidgeons and Hawks which keep up an everlasting skirling; it is altogether a most miserable poor place, we found the ministry had given in their resignation and no one would accept, the Military are all on duty day and night and the Town in great confusion, my companions all dined and slept here, and went on board in the morning-I have all the House to myself except some people in private rooms. It is strange one cannot go any where without meeting people of whom one knows something. 5th My Companions having gone I started


with a guide about the Town, called on Mr Shore a considerable Merchant here, also on Mr Graham’s House, having a letter to Mr Smith who is at the head of it here, he was very frank; I called on the Consul as a form, he asked me what I came about, I told him in few words, he said “very well”, took up my card made a stiff bow, I made one more stiff and walked out, his name is Smith-Called on Captn Buxton an Englishman who served in Pedro’s navy I had an introduction to him from Wild, he is an off-hand intelligent Sailor-went on ‘change with Mr Smith and saw several people connected with Oporto-Mr Newton-Mr Dagge brother of Mr D. in Graham’s house there, and agent for the Phenix fire office here; walked about the Town and returned to dine with Mr Smith and all their assistants we were a party of 10 all Argyllshire men but myself, Mr Grahams Nephew William who is to be head of the house here, is a very fine gentlemanly young man of twenty one; here and at Porto there are in Graham’s business about 20 Argyllshire men, the house is the greatest in the line in Portugal and have great connections in Spain. Here people drive about the streets in great lumbering Cabs drawn by horses, they have 2 wheels 6 feet high one horse in the shafts and another yoked on at the near side by a trace, on him the man rides. The people of Lisbon are the ugliest I ever saw. March 6th Called on Messrs Torlades and Co great men and Merchants here, the old man at the head of the firm was very Chatty and gave me a letter to his house in Setubal, and asked me to call again, I then found out Vernerhen the German who came from England to Porto with me-then called on Mr Appleton,


a Merchant to whom I had an introduction, he was very civil and asked me to his house, but I shall not have time to accept his invitation if I get off by next steamer, then went to Graham’s, they are generally very busy, but the revolution having for a time put a stop to all business, they had time to bestow on me; we pulled up the river for three miles to a Qunita, their Country house where they keep an establishment of pointers etc-the Country up the river is very pretty and looks well now, the weather being fine-the bean Crop will be ripe in a few weeks, and the Corn is in ear but there is one crop not sown yet, they get both a crop of beans and Corn in the same year, keep it almost constantly growing corn and give it little or no dung, the rains in winter and the heat in Spring keep it going-In the evening I went with them to the Opera, it is a very fine house and a good Company but badly filled at present, on account of the disturbance, this also keeps the Queen away which I am sorry for; she wants to get on board the Admiral’s ship, but if she did she would not be allowed to return, things are in a sad way, but people say there will be no fun in fighting, but our ship’s boats have been manned and armed for some days constantly ready in case of need. 7th Mr Smith breakfasted with me and went to see the Church of St Roche in which there is a very curious Chapel with 3 large pictures on the walls made of small stones mosaic work of different Colors about 30 in each square inch, it took the man 15 years to make them; the walls are of amythist, Coral Gold and every thing that could cost money, the whole Cost


nine millions of Crowns (2/3d) which I think makes £1,012,500, and the whole place is not more than 20 feet square, the Churches are much like others on the Continent, with this exception that they have not the fine large Pictures by the old masters which are seen in the Belgian Churches, and in place they have hundreds of little daubs about a foot square hung about as offerings from People who have been ill, and have been cured by some saint, and lots of wax legs and arms representing those parts of the body which have been cured. The Custom House here is a fine building and well arranged, with plenty of room, and the exchange a convenient building joining the other and the Quays, they form one side of the only good Square here, or three sides of a square, for the river forms one, called the Place de Commerce, in this part of the Town are some good wide streets with flagging at the sides. In this Town all the people of the same trade live in one street, and another in another and so on, in one you see nothing but Gold chains and ornaments, in another bales of woolen and in another Cotton goods, another boots and shoes, and another books, paper and maps and so on, there used to be a law for it and since it was done away, they have still continued the old plan. I went at Noon to see the Cortes, it is a good oblong house,at one side the Speakers desk and chair , and all round the other are the members seats, the Gallery for strangers is round the side above the members, at one end is a place for strangers of distinction and at the other for Ladies, I could not understand the speeches but they were on the subject of the “kick up”, and some of them were very warm, the Minister of


war gave some explanations, at last they got very bad, the Speaker left the house, and one chap jumped on his desk and spoke with great fury, and they got into such confusion that they could do no more good. I dined with Mr Shore with a large party and some of our officers and their wives, in the evening there was a grand turn out and dance ?“hushes” of People. Next morning I started at 5 and got 2 boatmen to take me over to Moita, the river is here about 10 miles wide, it was a fine morning and the sun rising among the trees at the opposite side making a Golden pillar across the water and behind was the irregular town of Lisbon just beginning to show itself through the Grey light, we should have been over in 2 hours , but the tide was too low to let us up to the town and the slake too deep to wade thro’ , so we were Kept for an hour, at length we came to a little boat and took possession of it, leaving our own, and got up and I went and found some Mules and hired one for myself and a nuita malo cavalo for my Groom, mine had on its back a great wide pad from tail to neck and on this was placed for comfort a sack of straw and on that for sake of look a beast’s skin, and on this I was placed, my groom was about 14 yrs old and wore breeches which came nearly half way down his thigh, a sort of flannel shirt, and a hat of ancient date, rather after the plan of Jame’s ???patent Ventilater, but to make his rig perfect he carried a great rope to thrash on his beast, for this fine turn out I was to pay 13/- for two days. I set off and rode sharply, the Country is a deep sand, and grows little but brush wood and a few fir trees for about 20 Leagues,


we then came to a Hill where stands a little Town Pelmella from this the view is very fine you see all round by the Tagus and Lisbon and the sea, and the river up the Country from St Ubes (or more probably Setubal for there never was such a saint as Ubes in the Calender) which is about a short league through a rich Country full of orange gardens, I reached early in the morning and went to Mr Silva after talking for a half hour, he sent with me a German who is a Clerk and speaks English, and lent us his 2 black horses, we went to see the Castle of Saint Philip which is on a high spot over the river near the sea, there is a smaller one just at the bar, from the Governors house there is a splendid view of the harbour and country up the river which is all gardens. He took us down below to the Dungeons which were filled in Miguels time, we then rode all about the Country and eat oranges, the trees are very regular, all of one form and seem to bear well, the Crop has been very great, they have draw wells in every Garden, like the Pictures in ?Belzoni’s book. A mule turns a gin (6 )which turns wheels, over which pass ropes with pots attached to it which go down and come up full and in turning over a wheel at the top empty themselves into a trough, the water runs in little channels, over all the garden-we returned and dined with Mr Silva and his wife, he was educated in England, he insisted on my sleeping at his house and I was not unwilling, as the Stelage looked rather queer, in the evening and next morning he went with me to the salt places, his stores for curing a fish, called Sardinias, like small herrings, his tanyards and wool stores and wine, he is making a Private


Dock, he loads about 250 ships a year the salt is the great trade there, the making is simple the water is let into the pans for some days and then it is shut out and that in evaporating leaves the salt, the heat makes this go all into great lumps, it is thrown up like lime heaps and a little straw put over it, the weather does not hurt it. Oranges and fruit of all sorts is the next considerable exportation, they go mostly to France and England, I wondered to see them going so ripe quite fit to eat, they are taken off and put in Paper and Packed in boxes in the Gardens and sent off-the salt fish goes to America and Italy-the salt also goes in great quantities to Newfoundland and Nova Scotia to salt the Cods to come back to Portugal-they buy wool and hides up the Country in Spain to send to England where the Cork is also sent. The fences here are all of the great ugly Aloe. Setubal is not a very bad place and contains 15,000 inhabitants. A bottle of the best wine costs about 120 Rees=6 pence. I started next morning at 11, rode fast and reached Moita in a little more than 2 hours, at one place my vile mule lying down when at a Canter and breaking her Girth, a lad came up to help my Groom and I was rather surprised to hear him address him as Senor Pai Joao (Mr Priest John) (here the final ao is sounded as ouy) and I afterwards heard from him that he was a Priest, but that did not at all stand in the way of his calling his beast a “Menita Diablo” and other delicate names-in going I met some men who asked me if a Frigate which they wanted to join had sailed, I happened to know and told them she was to sail either that day or next for which information they bowed with “menita


obrigado Senor Capitano” I met with no more serious interruptions than these, some time since this used to be a very bad road and dangerous. At Moita I met my Boat men as we had higsted? and ran over in two hours; on landing I found the square filled with Artillery, each gun with six horses or big mules and mounted, and the gunners with lighted matches I at first thought it might be some parade day but soon found my mistake when I saw the Custom house and all the Shops shut, every street was full of troops and bands playing in every direction, I met young Graham we ran to the Square in front of the Arsenal where the opposition troops held out, this is a large Strong building in a Square form open to the river, a corvette had dropped down the river to be ready to pour into it and the guns were planted ??? all round it, but after some firing of musketry in the Squares and a few of the troops shot they came to some terms, we saw the troops marched out to lay down their arms and to be disbanded and the troops outside took possession, the rest of the regular troops were marched off and the National Guard left to keep order, which is not difficult, the people here seem to like blustering better then real fighting, they say that although the Arsenal people have submitted, their leaders have got the best of it, and a fresh kick up is looked for soon, the only plan to quiet them is for one or other party to get a regular thrashing, I dined at Graham’s, at night not a man was to be seen in the streets but the guards, everything as quiet as if nothing had happened. There is a very fine statue in this large Square the Plaza do Commerco of one of their best Kings José mounted on a large


black Horse and raised on a high Pedestal, but it looks rather foolish to have the four elephants at each corner only about half as big as his horse. Mar 10th I went to Cintra with Mr Smith in a cab it is about 15 miles, we did it in three hours having to feed the horses half way, the road is good for Portugal, the country we passed through is stupid; just before reaching the Cintra Hills we passed through a small place with a big palace of the Queen called Ramillao; the town of Cintra is a queer up and down place at the foot of a rocky hill, altogether something like ?Caldon?/Ealdon but at the foot well wooded and covered with orange and lemon trees, a short way from the town is a large house belonging to some nobleman where the Convention of Cintra was signed, a little further is a beautiful place called ?Mont Serratte , the house was built by Beckford an Englishman and is now in ruins, it is a very fine place, between that and the sea is a little place called Colores where a considerable quantity of the red wine of the country is grown-the hill is very steep and rocky and on one top is a convent now empty from which there is a very extensive view of the country, on one side the sea and the Rock of Lisbon, on another you see the Tagus and beyond it the hill of ?Palmelea and Cape Espichel-to the north is an old Church at Mafra with three domes built by the same king José who built the aquaduct and who caused the chapel in the Church of San Roche to be made, they were rich in those days, the country at a little distance is very bare and poor-on two other tops of this hill are ruins of old Moorish Castles and across and across the hill sides are stone walls built at the distance of about forty yards


from each other. This was the last stronghold of the Moors in Portugal, except at a place in the Algarvia. I need not say more of a place which Byron and every body else who has seen it has said so much, it is certainly very beautiful, but I think I have seen other places as much so, it is a good place for the Lisbon cocknies in hot weather as there, there is always a degree of coolness, we rode about on two beurros (asses) and with a “rapas” who carried a long pole to prick them and kept shouting “arra burr” we went along at a great pace, we started at 5 o’clock next morning to reach Lisbon in time for the Steamer which was to sail at 10’clock-my passport gave me great trouble here having to take it to three different places for signature and cost me altogether in Lisbon eighteen Shillings. So much for Portugal. March 11th I sailed in the Iberia, Captn Middleton, and Lt Wooley in charge of the bags a large company on board. Mr Hurst from Porto, some officers for Gib, Malta and the Ionian Isles, others going to Alexandria and overland to India, I was very sick all the way this ship work is a terrible job. We reached Cadiz at 6 O’clock in the evening of the 12th just as the sun was setting and casting her last gleams over the quiet shining bay and the glittering white houses of the town. The Mail was landed at once and got in to the town, but we who had traps to look after did not land till the gates were shut and we should not have gained admittance that night but for the Capt of the Seville Steamer an English man who brought the Spanish Mail, after waiting an


hour the gates were opened for him and we entered along with him leaving our things at the Custom House till morning, here I found John Bell who has again started for Gib, only one of our passengers a Mr Vauvert remained here-now another evil in addition to the fleas has sprung up, the Musquitos are terrible and keep up such a piping all night one dare not sleep or must smother ones head under the bed clothes, the weather is as hot here at present as in July in England. The town is very small it stands on the end of a narrow neck of land and is walled round the sea washing the walls; the streets are very narrow but well paved and clean, the houses have all a hollow square in the middle paved with marble into which the rooms open (and frequently with no doors to the rooms) ?isikepdecof? they look very pretty being all whitewashed or built of marble and with balconies painted blue and green. Mar 13th I presented my introductions to people here, one from Torlades and Co of Lisbon to Zulueta and Co which was likely to be a useful one but the head of the House who speaks English was from home-one from Grahams to G/Jomes and Co a civil man, also to Larios Hermanos and Messrs Domingos Garcia Perez and Co on whom I had orders for money (I put down all names as they are sure to be forgotten and may be of use at some time) I called on Brackenbury the English Consul to whom I had a letter from Ld Palmerston he was very civil and asked me to tea, and to dinner the following day , for the first I excused myself, I find he is not much liked here, but that need not make any difference to me. 14th Crossed the Bay to Port St Mary where the wine Stores are, there is nothing in Cadiz


neither Wine nor wine Merchants, I found a Merchant I knew. The bay is about 7 miles across with a good deal of Shipping in it. I being out here at Wall’s Hotel he is an English man, father of Mr de Belem of Lisbon, it is a good house for this country. At half past 6 went to Mr Brackenbury’s to dinner, he has a large house and good rooms all well filled with pictures, several of them seem to be very good, his wife is rather a whining body and three silent sons, the eldest the parson, the second the Vice Consul and the third the Clerk, and four daughters who want to be married but have not “lit on” yet, they are very musical. 15th Saw the Cathedral a fine large building on the plan of the Pantheon at Paris but more massy and all of white marble except some places which are inlaid with yellow marble from Italy-there is a new Cathedral a smaller building, with some good paintings-I went up the signal tower to see the town from above, from this there is a good view of the bay and towns on the other side, on the roof of each house is a tower for the families to sit on in the cool of the evening, the absence of smoke gives the towns in this part of the world a very clear and clean appearance. The Capuchine Covent is now almost deserted but there are some good paintings by Murillo whose paintings are the finest among the old masters in this country. In the evening the Consul sent to ask me to go and take tea. Sir Chas Smith was there, he is an old Soldier and defended Cadiz when besieged by the French during the Peninsular war, he is now second in command at Gibralter also the Capt of the French Man of


War the “?Soussnen”?Soufren then lying high and dry on the sands having been wrecked during the late storms. Mr Brackenbury has given me a letter to the Consul at Seville Mr Williams. March 21st I have today returned from Seville where I have been since the last date. I sailed on the 16th in the Peninsula Steamer, the first time I had sailed under the red and yellow flag, we crossed the bay to Rota and coasted to San Lucar which is at the mouth of the Guadalquivir, the distance to Seville is about 85 miles, the Sail up the river is not very interesting, the country is very flat for ten miles on each side and chiefly in grass, the floods had been over it all and had destroyed some thousands of the horses and cattle which inhabit it, they were lying several hundreds in a flock the skins taken off and the beasts left to rot and there were multitudes of Flamingos and swans and wild geese; nearer Seville the banks are prettier and covered with orange trees and shrubs, we reached the town in the evening and found a lodging house where there were some men whom I had met in Cadiz-Carlos Vidal agent for Messrs Zwilchenbark ??? and Co of Liverpool-Sam Mather from New York-Wm Preston agent for Rothschild and a Missionary, besides lots of Spaniards, our LandLady’s name was Senora Joao Encarnation in the Calle do Saint Isidoro?? No 16-we lodged for one dollar a day about 4/2d this for bedroom and sitting room, breakfast in what way we liked, lunch with as much wine and fruit as we could eat, dinner etc etc and tea or supper-wine and fruit at our taking at all times. One of the principal objects in Seville is the Cathedral, a very large structure which seems to have been built on the Site of a Moorish building part of


a very high tower called the Hiralda still remains in perfect preservation and rises to a great height above the corner of the Cathedral, the ascent in the inside is by a spiral inclined plain up which the Queen once rode on horse back-from the top of this the view of the town and neighbourhood is very extensive and curious. In the Cathedral there are many fine paintings and great riches, in one room all the priest’s dresses are kept, made of silk richly embroidered with gold and silver, on silk of white, red, or black, as may be required. We bribed the chap to let us dress ourselves in them and we made very good looking priests, another room is filled with the plate, a large silver Temple called the “Custodia” or keeper of the heart weighs 25 cwt, this is carried before the procession in the holy week, there are great numbers of other ornaments and gold and silver candlesticks etc etc. The Organ is very powerful and sounds very grand during high mass. The Alcassar is near the Cathedral, it is enclosed within high walls with towers and turrets it occupies a considerable portion of the town, and was the residence of the Moorish Kings the gardens are very extensive and formerly jets of water used to play from the marble walks and in hot weather the Moors used to walk amongst it with their bare legs-the building and the rooms are of a very ancient style, the walls are all figured in the plaster, and the doors if not of worked iron railing, are of oak and richly carved-there is now a chapel for the use of the royal family; When they visit Seville they live in the palace, it is not furnished, but when they come they borrow things


from the wealthy Citizens. In the gardens there are large plots of boxwood which are kept cut in the shape of the Spanish arms on Shields etc There are also lots of baths and cool houses for smoking in. In one of the rooms are a number of fine Statues which have been dug from the ruins of Stalica, the ceilings of the rooms are richly covered with gilding and purple. The Tobacco manufactury is a very extensive and curious building, it is a monopoly in the hands of the Government. The snuff is made by being chopped small in a vat, by instruments for the purpose attached to a gin which is driven by a great number of mules, for want of a steam engine, after this it is sifted and the coarse parts taken out to undergo a second crushing, another sort is made finer in quality by being ground in a large basin in which a great stone wheel or roller is turned by a mule who goes round outside. The segars are made by women who roll the leaves of tobacco up with their fingers with wonderful quickness, they are found to be more nimble fingered than the men, in one very large room we saw Two thousand and six hundred girls emploied in this way and almost all of them smoking a segar. The tobacco used is chiefly from the Havanah and Verginian, the wages of the workers are very small from about 3d to 1/- per day. The yard outside is used as a store for brass cannons which are made here and are perhaps the finest in the world-the making of Copper is curious, the mines in this district are extensive, the best is procured by damming up the water which runs through the mines, into which


Iron bars are thrown, in about three weeks an incrustation of copper of the thickness of an inch is formed upon the bar, it is taken out and knocked off and the bar thrown in again and so on till the iron is all consumed. The Inquisition is a very large building but is now fast going to ruins. The chief room has been very large and fine and stuck round with figures of all the Saints whose heads are now all cut off and otherwise disfigured. The Judgement Hall has also been very splendid the walls are painted in imitation of ermine with many gilt crosses. The inquisitions have been disliked for some years but were not abolished by law till last year. There is a very large old house called “Pilotta” belonging to a wealthy duke it is said to have been built an exact model of Pontius Pilate’s house in Jerusalem, round the interior are placed statues and busts of the Roman Emperors which were brought from Rome, there is also the balcony which is the same as that where Pilate washed his hands and spoke to the people when Jesus was given up to them. The Church belonging to the Hospital contains a few very fine paintings-two of which by Murillo thought the finest in Spain-one of them represents Moses striking the rock and all the people flocking round eagerly to catch water-The other the Apostles distributing bread and fishes to the Multitude. There is also another of St John carrying a sick or dead man assisted by an angle. Murillo throws much more nature and life into his figures and faces than any of the Flemish Masters


whose works I have seen. We followed a funeral to the Cemetery outside the town, attended by a great number of men and boys with each a short stick in his hand, followed by a hundred Priests with each a long white Stick, dressed in little hats, black stuff petticoats and white bedgowns-the bodies are put into holes in the thick wall, lengthways, which are built up and after remaining there for 5 or 6 years they are quite dry and are taken out and put below ground to make room for more in the wall, this place is about two acres in extent and the walls will contain about 5 to 6,000 bodies-the people who are too poor to pay for one of these holes, are buried below ground in the interior of this place two feet deep without a coffin. The town called “the Golden” near the river is one of the oldest of the Moorish remains but is still in excellent preservation, it is not high enough for a watch tower, and being out side the walls has probably been for the purpose of preventing an enemy landing or crossing the river at that post?part? The Exchange is a good building with a spacious square in the interior and a very wide handsome staircase of brown and yellow marble from Granada. The Bull Ring is one of the best in Spain containing about half an acre of ground, is surrounded by seats rising one behind another to a great height, at the side facing the North are balconies for the Grandees-there are eight bulls for one days sport and three horsemen and ten footmen, at the last fight there were five horses and a man killed. There are


several very fine collections of paintings in private houses, particularly in that of Senor Bravo, he has 300 pictures in a very small room, they are valued at a very great sum, the law does not permit the exportation of paintings by old Masters, otherwise many more would be sold then are at present, when it can seldom be done except by having them smuggled. Mr.Williams the B. Consul and Mr Weatheral an English gentleman who has a very pleasant family, have also very extensive and valuable collections of paintings Mr W deserves some credit as an artist himself. I found the trade of picking pockets was here carried on to some extent, on going to the theatre I felt a little tug and on looking round I found a boys hand in my coat pocket I was a little too quick for him and taking the law into my own hands proved that a little application of stick to the back tends greatly to give suppleness to the limbs. The Theatre is of a considerable size but is not kept in good order and looks very bare and the performance was mediocre, the Spanish dancing is very pretty and to me new. Debscription of the Town The Streets are very irregular, twisting, and narrow, many of them one may reach across by stretching out the arms, they are paved with very small, round stones, the Public walks near the river are extensive and very fine and are much frequented by all the Citizens every evening in the cool, people here go to business from 10 till 1 o’clock and then go home to sleep or keep cool till dinner about 3 o’clock after which they remain


in doors till 5 or 6 as the season may be, they then walk till quite dark. The Houses are roomy and generally large and good and well calculated for a hot climate, all having an open space or court in the middle into which every room opens and the windows opening into the street at the other side keep the rooms well Ventilated. The space called the Passio is paved with marble and generally has a fountain of water playing amidst a clump of shrubs and flowers in large pots, during the heat of the day a curtain is drawn over this place to shade it from the great power of the sun, the family frequently dine and in the evening sit there drinking their Lemonade and coffee the entrance to it from the Street is shut by an open iron gate painted in gay colors and in the house of the wealthy frequently gilded. The trade of this town is very considerable, oil made from the olives, wool from the interior, and fruit of many sorts, also lead which is now £18 per ton in England, 2£ below the price of English lead- quick silver is obtained in considerable quantities, Rothschild has the contract for all that is worked in this country and shipped from this port. The Foundling Hospital here seems to be terribly mismanaged, there are yearly received on an average 800 children, which are kept till 6 or 7 years old then sent to a workhouse to learn a trade, there are at this time of children below 4 years old only 340 which shows a fearful loss of life. Alcalea is about two leagues from Seville there are ruins of a Moorish Castle and some old walls


and fortifications but not much remaining to be seen, it is a place of bakehouses and supplies Seville with bread which is very good and remarkably fine in the grain. “St Joao” called St Wiham?Huan? is an old Moorish Castle since used as a convent and now going to ruins stands on a hill two miles on the further side of the river from the town from this the most splendid view of the district and of the windings of the river through the extensive plains is to be had. We had very great pleasure in visiting “Santa Ponsa” the ancient Italica of the Romans where Trajan was born, it is situated about 5 miles from Seville, the ancient town is supposed to have been overthrown by an earthquake, as it is only by making excavations that many of the relics are found, many statues and vases have been brought to the Palace from it, but the Monks to whom the property belonged put a stop to the search and since they were expelled and the land is in the hands of the government nothing more has been done. The only things which are at all distinct are the Amphitheatre (which is entered by an arch 20 yards long, the shape is oval and in size about an acre, surrounded by high stone seats, an arch extends round below these which was made into cells in which the bears and wild beasts were kept) and the Baths which are very spacious and must have been very good, there is one 10 yards long by 5 wide and many smaller ones, and there are archways from them which seem to have been passages to dressing rooms and there is a good supply of water, in some places there are still


to be found remains of foundations, the old City has been very extensive I should think more than a mile across-there are many old coins found among the ruins which are offered for sale along with many false ones by the peasants, in a handful I bought there were a great number I could make neither head nor tail of, but I found two with the figures of Romulus and Remus sucking the Wolf and several with figures of gladiators and men in the ancient Roman dress which must have been genuine. In a “Posada” (Inn) where we called for breakfast we could get nothing but some eggs and a bit of pork but no knives or forks as every Spaniard carries a pocket knife which answers the double purpose of stabbing and cutting his dinner, they sent to the priest to borrow some for us. There is a very large Convent now empty as are most others, the Monks formerly owned the town and land for nearly ten miles round and exersised shameful tyrany over the natives under their power such as I could not have believed possible if I had not heard it from the best authority. The country in this neighbourhood is flat and uninteresting and bare except where there are groves of olive trees. The people in this country are very fond of public exhibitions and the Circus is always well attended by all ranks, the horsemanship was very good, but while it was going on the horse who was the best performer got vexed at something and when playing some tricks sprang at his master, knocked him down and shook and bit him terribly, striking him with his fore feet, in a short time he was rescued and taken off and bled but when I left his recovery was doubted.


The Ladies of Seville are said to be the most beautiful in Spain, they are certainly much more so than those in Portugal they have the finest eyes possible but the under part of the face is not so good, frequently heavy and by the time they are five and twenty they begin to look quite old and often have a beard-they are said to be the best walkers in the world, if so the Bantam is the best walker among the birds, but their figures are exceedingly elegant and their feet small and pretty-their dress is most graceful, always black the Mantilla of black silk and lace thrown over the head and falling on the shoulders suits their dark complections much better than a bonnet, the hair is usually born high on the head which supports the Mantilla off the face. The power of the Monks and Priests has very much fallen, and the habits of the people are in consequence improving, such a character as Ingles gives would now be far from correct The Archbishop fled some time since and has not been heard of since. Religious processions are now rare except during the holy week at Easter but I am informed that the account Ingles gives of them is very much exaggerated. The Andalusians are all in favor of the Queen’s Party rather than of Don Carlos, but many are I find Inclined to republicanism, the Convents are all empty except when the nuns chose to remain, which few, except the old and ugly did-the Monks were all turned out at three hours notice one afternoon some have turned Priests but most have chosen the life of bandits


Contrabandisters and Vagabonds. The river might be very good for vessels drawing 7 or 8 feet of water but they take no care to keep it clear of mud, and now one drawing 4 feet can scarcely reach the town which is well situated for trade having water conveyance for a great distance up the river for boats. I find that I do not get on with the language here quite so well as in Portugal but almost all the servants are Galiagos or Gallicians who can understand my bad Portuguese, these are a peculiar race of people who do all the hard work of the country, they are a respectable working people, but very much looked down upon by their idle masters, they remain a few years till they save enough money to return home and purchase one of the small fields, into which their Province is divided, on which they live for the rest of their life and bring up their families-Guide Mr Bailey. Cadis 22nd March. On account of the hot weather meat is now very bad we get little but fresh pork which is very good, I saw in the market today about 400 pigs such as ours only black, square thick chaps about 20 stones weight, tea and coffee are both very bad here we use chocolate and eggs, there is no butter now, salads are very good which with lots of oil keep the inside smooth, our drink is the half sour red wine of the country, it is rather curious that in the wine countries either Spain or Portugal it is impossible to get a glass of tolerable wine except in the house of a private gentleman, by the country people it is never kept more than one year old. I hear that my old friend the Londonderry, after having been out ten days and in sight of the


Spanish coast had to put back and got into Falmouth with only three hours coals, and almost sinking. The dress of the men is very curious, all classes wear round jackets, in cold weather a good sort of thing made of lamb skins with the black wool on and in hot weather a light one, the old Andalusian dress is a jacket very much embroidered with a collar of many gay colors and white buttons and breeches frequently bright blue, alike ornamented with a row of buttons all the way down the thigh and leather gaiters, a sugar loaf hat with cords and tassels, all the lower classes wear a red woollen plaid or scarf wrapped round the middle which serves the purpose of a pocket to stuff everything into, and all classes always wear a great heavy cloth cloak at Xmas and in the Dog days, up over the mouth and down to the ground, and they drink great quantities of cold water and Lemon water, their object in both of these practices is to produce perspiration as much as possible which they say keeps them in health without it they say they would be sure to catch the fever, they have an elegant saying but as it was told me by a lady I may venture to repeat it “The more they drink the more they sweat” “and the more they sweat the more they drink and the more they sweat the more they work” however it is not without its meaning. The money here is very convenient, gold dollars in pieces from one to eight and sixteen, that of four is about as big as our sixpence, then the dollar is divided into silver coins as low as one real about 2 half d-20 reals in a dollar, all small sums



are reckoned in reals and large in dollars. Today we walked up the neck of land for two miles where there is a strong fortification which cuts the neck across, there is an excellent McAdamised road all the way to the main land, this is the Gibralter road. Cadiz 23rd March 38 Early in the morning I started for Xeres where I spent that and the next day, and having filled my business letter about it have little more to say, the road to it from Santa Maria is only two leagues and requires two hours to go in a calessa or sort of cab drawn by one horse, the road is so bad that one can seldom go off a walk but must frequently go off the road to find a more practicable way through some corn field, Xeres is the most wealthy town in Spain and one of the worst and most miserable and dirty, scarcely any of the Streets are paved in any way and in bad weather are knee deep in mud, when they become impassable it is shoveled into heaps in the middle, this is not taken away but left till Summer when it gets trodden and spread down again. The Hotel is very bad and I did not get a wink of sleep, I suppose it is here as on the Douro, few people go who are at all particular except those on business in which case they live in the Merchants houses which are big enough to be cavalry barracks, in the morning before breakfast which consisted of fat pork and wine I took a turn to the Cathedral it is small but there is a great deal of carved work on the roof and different parts of the building, the market place was hanging well stocked with young kids. On my return in the afternoon the Sun was very hot I was like to have been burnt having nothing


but a cap on, I fell on rather a good plan I emptied my small wardrobe out of my hat case and put it onto my head. I have now for a companion Mr Mason a friend of ours in London. The Cemetery here is on the same plan as that in Seville it is a very extensive place about a mile out on the neck of land and now contains more bodies than there are inhabitants in Cadiz which is about 48,000. On Sunday Mason and I went to hear a Sermon red (sic) by the Vice Consul. On Monday we visited the Roman Consul, Mr White and a pleasant party Wednesday 28th March 38. Early in the morning the English Steamer for Gib called and instead of waiting four hours her regular time after the gates are opened she sailed at 8 o’clock, we were in the bay within a short distance of her, when she struck her colours and off she went, right slick away, well we were sick of Cadiz and there was to be no other for a week, if I was ever in a rage it was then, they are managed very badly, there is no one to give any information about them, and nobody will work kindly with Brackenburry I wanted to start and ride to Gib by land but every body advised me against doing so, Mason and I started at once for Xeres we hired a boat to Santa Maria while we were walking across the Quay to the place where the Calessas are kept some carters were quarrelling over their dinners, it did not last long till one struck another with the knife he was cutting his bread and garlic with the poor fellow died and we pursued our journey to Xeres where we took up our quarters with Masons friends Mr and Mrs Cranston, Mr C is Partner and Manager


in the House of James Gordon the largest there, they live in good style and were very kind I had a bad cold and Mrs C. made me the nicest stuff of milk etc etc I ever took, I would advise any one to take a cold if it would procure him such a supper. We spent our time that and the next day among wine Stores, and visiting the family of John David Gordon he is British Vice Consul as well as a very large merchant and has a valuable estate in Scotland, he has a large family, we visited the Carthusian Convent a few miles distant, now abandoned it is one of the largest and finest buildings in that part of the country and belonged to a rich lot of Monks of that Order who owned a large district of country and were remarkable for having in their possession the finest breed of Andalusian horses. Friday 30th We returned in the morning to Cadiz and found in the bay the Steamer for England by which Mason sailed at noon so I was left alone and my long expected letters had been sent on to Gib by mistake, and I was told that the next Vessel was the old Londonderry which could not be out short of a week, so I determined to leave Cadiz which turned out to be one of the most foolish things I ever did. There was a Sailing boat to start in the evening and as the wind was west I was told we should be into Gib next morning I did not mind sleeping in my cloak one night so I packed up and started at 6 o’clock, it very soon became calm and then a wind sprang up from the east and we made slow way all night, I got in below some coverings they had but there were so many filthy Spanish Soldiers going to Algesieras and some Convicts going to Ceuta that I very soon bolted-the spray dashed over the


sort of deck, I made a bed of two oars lying along them with a coil of ropes for my head this let the water run through below me, in this way with my cloak spread over me I spent the night, all next day the wind blew very strong against us we made long tacks but did not gain much by them there was not a man on board who could speak a word of English, it was very miserable and I bitterly repented having left Cadiz, night came on again and we were not yet in the ?gut, the storm rose and blew terribly every sea broke over the boat I was drenched through and through; about midnight it was very grand the moon was shining very bright and gilding the tops of the great black waves over which we were dancing close along the foot of the great hills of Africa and we saw in the distance the rough hills of Spain the Spaniards were very much frightened at the thought of being run on the coast of Africa as a boats crew about two years before had been all murdered by the Moors, we ran up the coast for a long time till we could run down under the wind to Teriffa into the small bay of which we entered about 4 o’clock in the morning, we cast anchor and wished for day, at 6 we were allowed to land the gates being opened, they told me they could go no further till a change of wind, so I got my traps out and went to the town and hunted out the Alcadi to get my passport signed etc and find horses to take me by land which I accomplished after much trouble to get these slow Spaniards to move themselves, it was Sunday and a feast, the town was very gay, here an ancient custom left by the Moors is still kept up by the women who wear a vail over the head and face leaving only a triangle out of which


one eye looks, on observing a stranger they always discover that the vail requires some fresh arrangement for which purpose they open it and uncover frequently a very pretty face less dark than most of their country women from being constantly protected from the rays of the Sun. I got off by 11 o’clock I had escaped the perils of the sea I was now likely to be exposed to perils of robbers, for this road is one of the worst in Spain for the Contrabandisters. I put 12 dollars in my pocket to satisfy them, for now, they seldom strip a person if he gives them anything reasonable, I put my purse with the remainder of my money down one leg of my drawers and my watch in the other and so set off, from that to Algesieras is three leagues over a very high barren country growing little but stones and brushwood, except in some hollows where there are a few cork and olive trees and a few flocks of goats are the only living creatures to be seen, the land view is nothing, but the sea lying like a great river below and the hills of big Africa raising their great sides out of the water look very grand, about half way the bay of Algeseiras and the Rock of Gibralter lying like huge lion in it, break upon you all at once, I felt as if it were a sort of home and pressed on for it, by good luck I reached Algeseiras safely from that it is four leagues to Gib round the bay and about one and a half across, but the wind being still strong from east I chose to ride rather than run the risk of not reaching till the gates were shut and having to spend a third night in a boat, we rode by the water side crossing two rivers by ferries, when we reached the neck I met many English riding, at the Spanish lines my guide was not allowed to pass having no passport for


Gib, I paid and left him and got a man to go on and bring back the ponies, the neutral ground is about half a mile in length then come the English lines and Sentinals, the difference was very striking between the strapping Englishmen and their smart ?trig uniform, and the little Spaniards in their dirty worn out ill made grey dress, and crouching walk which they all contract from the perpetual habit of wearing their nose and mouth in the breast of their cloak-in getting nearer the town the boys were playing and singing English songs, the Officers and ladies, and maid servants with children whose light hair and blue eyes showed their country, were walking about enjoying the fine Sunday evening-I rode slowly along enjoying the scene, my heart almost too full to contain itself. I alighted at the Club House and found I had just time to dress before dinner, I met young Bell, Goodrich and several others whom I had known in some land or other, in the evening though worn out we took a turn out to see this strange place, such a variety of faces, figures, dresses and tongues, English Officers and ladies without end, and Sailors of the same country whose rolling walk and independent look put him beyond doubt, the Sugar loaf hat and leather gaiters are a sufficient mark for the Andalusian even without the paper Segar and red girdle and the woman with black eyes, mantilla and who can use a fan, can be of no other country, the nose and the beard at once mark the Jew, then there is a bunch of rum looking chaps with white turbans , a thin line of moustashe, a sort of Spencer (7) and wide petticoat Breeched to the knee and bare legs finishing off with yellow slippers down in the heel, they are


Descendants of the ancient masters of the land and still some of the most wealthy men in it and carry on a great trade with their brethren in Barbary. The Genoers and Sicilian women wear very flaring scarlet cloaks with black trimming, and there is a class which seems to belong to no nation and speaks no language but their own, can seldom give an answer to any question and cheat whenever they can, they are the Rock Scorpians. At night I was taken with bad cramps in the stomach from having been so long without food and also very wet, expecting we should only have been at sea for a few hours we took no provisions instead of which we were thirty six hours from Cadiz to Teriffa, when the horses were being prepared the woman of the house roasted an egg but I was sick with the heat and bustle and could not taste it so I had been forty eight hours without eating; Bell and Goodrich sat by my bed talking over our several adventures and with the help of some hot brandy and water I had a good sleep and felt no further evil effects, but I think it was the hardest piece of work I ever went through. Gibralter April 2nd We wandered about and saw the place and called on the people to whom I had introductions, in the evening Capt *Thane/Thames a friend of Bells got us tickets for the amateur theatre when the ?Hossifers performed remarkably well, and one of the bands for the orchestra; The drums and pipes and guns are everlastingly kicking up a row here from 5 AM to 11 PM In London Gentleman carry umbrellas, the officers here carry towels, which in a cold day unsuitable for bathing seemed singular the

* Since Major Thane killed in the Kyber pass


reason is that they are only allowed to wear white jackets when they are going to bathe or shoot and at the season when there is no shooting the towel is always the excuse for the jackets. In Cadiz the flying of kites is very striking, they are to be seen at all hours in great numbers the boys fly them from the flat roofs of the houses, I suspect they have recourse to this sort of fun their being so little ground unoccupied with houses to allow of more active sports during the time when Cadiz was blockaded kites were used as signals to the troops over the Bay: it is also very remarkable to see so great a number of the women I should say not less than one half with black patches on their temples having been bled for headache, which is probably caused by their mantilla affording so little protection to the head against the heat of the sun. April 3rd went through the Excavations in the Rock at the land end which is 1500 feet high with a battery on the very top, in the galleries which are in rows one above another and of great length there are holes at short distances from each other, out of each of which a gun sticks his nose ready to bear upon the narrow road leading from the Neutral ground to the Town, we saw lots of monkeys, large fellows, when we went they were sitting on the guns but soon fled to the edge of the rock, grinning and slapping their bottoms without tails at us. 4th we went to the South to Europa point about two miles from the Town which is all fortified in the same way as other


parts, in that part there are some deep glens in the rock where some of the married officers have very snug pretty little cottages among trees and gardens, we clambered to the Old signal tower on the highest South point 1,470 feet above the sea it was twice knocked down by lightning, and the new one is about the middle of the ridge a little lower than the old, to this we also went, the view from both is the same and most extensive and splendid, like a great Panorama-near you, are the rough rocks mingled with wild flowers, across which you can only pass by a few narrow goat tracks, you see a great eagle who has come over from the hills of Barbary, hopping from one rugged point to another then taking his departure in a straight line for his home, in another place you see an old ape with a lot of little beggars sticking on her neck and back, scrambling off to some place of security and some other fellow who is more independent and has only himself to care for sitting on the point of a rock from which he might fall many hundred feet into the sea below, quite unconcerned scratching himself and making grimaces at you; looking down you see lying at your feet the irregular town with its old Moorish Castle, barracks, fortifications, gardens and pleasure grounds, like a beautiful picture, you see the troops reviewing in the Alamada and at intervals hear the music of the bands wafted up the hill by the breeze, you see the bay at one time calm and shining like a great mirror and the next minute covered with white foam and on its borders the towns of Sourocha and Algerseiras with its Roman aquaduct, the bay is studded with Vessels of all descriptions from the Majestic British Man of War with her glorious flag to the


Spanish Felucka and the Gibralter Smuggler with her light build, great wing like sails, and thirty oars, looking further you see the wild hills of Andalusia with their grim sides and rocky tops, and the rivers sparkling and winding their way among them as if scarcely able to reach the bay; looking to the South East the eye follows the African coast from Apes hill nearly opposite, to Tangiers and Cape Spartel into the Atlantic, more to the South you see Ceuta and Tetuan and the coast bending to the South till it is lost in the distance, also the great mountains one of the ranges of the Atlas covered with everlasting snow, to the East the Mediterranean stretches out her blue waters on both coasts, further round you see the Spanish coast as far as Malaga and in the background the lofty mountains of Sierra Novada and those about Granada and Ronda many of which are always clad in white, it is a very splendid sight, then to think how little England with this spot of rock could bid defiance to all of these great countries and to see eight out of ten of the Vessels which pass through the straights hoist the British colours as she passes the rock, and to hear the guns from ships of almost every nation join us/ours? in roaring out a salute to our Admiral, surely no English man can go from home and think of his country without feelings of pride. There are some curious caves in the rock, one “St Michels” which tradition says is the passage by which the monkeys came from Barbary, but I take it this is like the passage below the “Hussel ?House”?Stane it is found at a very great depth to be filled with water, within the mouth is a spacious chamber where the towns folk hold a feast on the day of the patron Saint of the Cave. It is a curious fact that this rock is the only


part of Europe where the Barbary Ape is found, the formation of the rock is lime stone the same as Ape’s Hill and the others on the African coast, and not like the neighbouring district of Spain which is sandstone; the east side from the old signal tower is perfectly perpendicular into the sea which is also unfathomable close to the edge. The fact of the current at all times setting in towards the Mediterranean is very remarkable and still causes much dispute though I think it is the most reasonable way of accounting for it to suppose that there must be an under current running out, as there are often to be seen in the air low clouds floating in one direction while those at a greater altitude are flying in the contrary, the head has not served to enlighten those who have tried experiments in that part, the Straights have never been fathomed, and become deep very suddenly, the distance from Teriffa to Tangiers being only fourteen miles. Thursday 5th April Bell and I having bills of health started about noon in a Falucho bound for Tetuan Capt Francisco Murillo, alias Peppo Bruto or Peter the Beast so called by His companions, before we got under weigh Urzene came on board with his friend Hamal Muktar who speak English well, they were not going themselves but Urzene who is the richest Moor in Gib or Tetuan, and to whom the cargo belonged, recommended us to an old Moor and desired him to see that we were treated as his friends, there were several Moors and Jews with us none could speak English but most of them could speak Spanish, about half way, fifteen miles, we came under Ceuta a Spanish Possession, it is a peninsular, the Island, part which is a hill, is fortified and the Town is on the neck of land on the African end there is a cut through the neck and three batteries, it seems very strong, fifteen miles further


we passed a cape with a castle, we were then in the Bay of Tetuan and saw the white town lying about eight miles up the Vale among the hills, while we were in the bay the sun set in the west, the thick clouds hung on the tops of the hills and the sun shone bright red through below them, between the summits of the blue mountains, it was very fine-we came to almost a mile from shore, it was after evening gun, but the old Moor being a man of consequence was allowed to land with another and took us with him, the bar was rather rough and the old Moor cried and screamed for fear, but after making one or two false attempts and getting a splashing we landed, a great many of the Moorish guard came to us, we walked a mile up the river side to the guard House, the Frogs made a terrible noise like some hundreds of coffee mills or Spinning Jennies, we were taken in and presented to about a dozen men sitting on a matrass as fine a lot of men as I ever looked on, some of them were merchants going to Gib next morning and Urzene’s brother was one of them, they all came round us asking us many questions “whether we were French or had been to Algiers” they are very jealous of the French, having heard that they were sending ten thousand fresh troops to Africa, I took great care to inform them we were not French but English, they like the English more than any other people for several reasons, they say they are the only Christians who are not idolaters, and they were to have been Mahomitans, but when Mahomet said they were not to drink wine of which they were very fond, they wrote a letter to him, to ask why they were not to drink wine, and before they received his answer he died, and they have a notion that English men like to fight with French men and Spaniards their enemies which I did not attempt


contradict . The Barbarians treated us with no small kindness, they put us at the roof of the house in a room about 10 feet by 6 and 5 high into which we crept by a sort of rabbit house doorway without any door to it, they had not a bed to give us, but laid a carpet to keep us from the earthen floor and brought us a dish of stewed stuff, sweet cakes, a bason of new milk, oranges and a jar of water, so we filled ourselves and lay down below our cloaks, Bell had a footstool for a pillow and I our provision basket, we had a guard set over us and a beggar man or Saint also took up his quarters with us, they lay across the foot of our room Bell slept as soundly as possible all night, I don’t know whether I am more fearful than other people I suspect not, but I did not sleep a wink, the guards below and the numberless dogs and the asses and mules all kept up such a noise during the whole night and our two friends were running out and in, every few minutes, and the fleas bit so wickedly I could not settle, but lay looking through the door at the Moon which shone like the Sun at noon on the whitewashed roofs. We were out by 5 0’clock and got two ponies and a soldier and started for the town, the Officer of the Guard would not take anything from us as we were Urzene’s friends, we were an hour and a half in riding through a plain which extended for about five miles on each side of us, I think I never saw any thing naturally more rich, it is very badly cultivated but the grass and weeds were very luxuriant and great numbers of fine cattle were feeding. They are red with fine skins and in appearance much resembling the Devons, the plain is bounded on the north by low grassy hills and on the South by the lower Atlas whose rocky tops looked very grand in the morning sun, on reaching the town


we went to Mr Butler the English Vice Consul to whom I had a letter of introduction he was very civil and sent us to the house of a Jew, Baldelock to lodge which we found very comfortable and clean Mr B’s son walked about with us, but we were obliged to have a soldier from the governor to protect us or we should have been murdered, they think if they kill five Christians they become Saints and go to Heaven without further trouble, as it was we were often insulted and spit upon by the boys, especially when we were looking into a Mosque as we passed the door, but the Soldier bangs them about, he watched over us like a cat over a mouse, he answers for our safety with his life, we wished to enter the Mosque but he told us if we did so he could not ensure our safety, this was Friday the Moorish Sunday, and their chief market day, there were great red flags flying from all the Mosques, and we saw the Streets very full and the people in their best dresses, and the principal Square which is the Market Place was filled with Camels and their wild drivers which had come from the interior with wool, fruit, corn etc, the town is large containing 40,000 inhabitants of whom 14,000 are Jews, and Mr Butler’s family are the only Christians. The Jews live in a part of the town walled off by themselves and are locked up every night from the others, they are treated like beasts by the Moors, the poorest Moor may make the richest Jew do anything he pleases, no Jew can leave the country without leaving his whole family behind him as hostages for his return. When the Emperor of Morocco and his Nephew were at war with each other the Emperor had possession of Tangiers and the Nephew of Tetuan, the latter was in great want of food for his men and as a means of


procuring it took twenty of the richest Jews and locked them up in the castle ordering them to procure him within two weeks 3,000 casks of flour, they said it was impossible but his answer was that if it was not done every one of them should have his head cut off, they then knew that they had no other chance of saving themselves and applied to all their friends at Gibralter and purchased all that could be found there and in Spain and brought him the stipulated quantity within the time, if a Jew is suspected of having wealth he is sure to be accused of some crime and executed in which case his property is confiscated. The most common punishment short of death is having a hand cut off, this is done very quickly by the chop of an axe above the wrist, they then dip the stump into boiling pitch which stops the blood, and the great heat takes up the arteries and muscles as well as a doctor could do and with great safety, if not with comfort to the patient. The Streets are about four or five feet in width and all without pavement and very dirty under foot, it is a strange place the houses are all whitewashed and without street windows the opening from the rooms is by a door into the square in the interior of the house, this serves the double purpose of keeping the sun from shining in and the women from looking out, or prevents their being seen from the street or neighbouring houses, the room doorway has seldom anything more than a curtain to shut it. All the Houses have flat tops and the custom is, that the Moorish men never go on the roof but the ladies always do in the cool of the evening, and when they observed Europeans they never failed to take off their vails, they wear a sort of bandage across the brows and another across the nose and under parts of the face leaving a strip of an inch wide across


the face by which only the eyes are uncovered. During the whole night all the Jews were on the rooftops shouting and singing in Hebrew with their faces to Jerusalem it was the night before their Sabbath and the passover was at hand, they made a tremendous noise. Our Landlord made his eldest daughter dress herself in her best dress and with her ornaments to let us see the Sabbath days dress, but in reality to shew off his girl of whom he was not a little proud and not without reason for she was by far the most beautiful and elegant woman I ever beheld. Saturday 7th We started at half past five AM with a mule man and a Captain of Cavalry whom the governor gave us as a guard; in return for which he expects a present of a little tea of gunpowder. Captain is the highest rank in the army there are only four, and a hundred Soldiers in Tetuan, but they are very much feared, this was a very fine man and one may also say gentlemanly, for three hours we rode through a very rich country the soil very fine, I observed in some places where it had been run into holes by water it was of the same quality for ten feet deep, there were great numbers of the red cattle and numerous flocks of sheep, with long wool, brown heads and flap ears, and almost every flower which is reared with care in an English garden were growing wild in all their beauty and hundreds of others of gay colors which I had never seen before; we met very long strings of Jimnels? as they call the Camels, driven by the ?Bedoeans who wear only a woolen shirt and hood which they throw off during the heat of the day, they carry a great knife and a long gun, seven feet long such as we saw them making in Tetuan, when they fire they lie flat on the


Ground and rest the stock against a stone, from horse back they rest the barrel in the hollow of the left arm and fire almost backwards. After passing this fertile district we came to a more hilly country with very rough tracks for roads, where we had frequently to dismount and drive the mules and ponies, this lasted for three or four hours longer, at the foot of one hill we found a drove of Camels sticking in the mud, I don’t wonder they could not get them up, it was very hard work walking down under an African midday sun;at 2 o’clock we stopped at a well under the shade of some olive and orange trees to rest the beasts and to eat some of our grub, we by ourselves and the Moors by themselves “for it is an abomination etc etc”; they would not drink our wine but we offered them our bottle of brandy of which they drank freely, and then put it up in their own private sack, we did not forget while lying among the long grass to have a glass to the health of our friends at home, after half an hour we caught our horses and again pursued our way we passed no houses but here and there tents, where the flocks were feeding, the men and boys who were attending them used to come running to kiss the hand of our officer, for some miles before reaching Tangiers we rode over a flat and swampy country growing rough grass, our beasts often stuck in the mud especially the mules which have small feet, we saw in this part great numbers of Storks walking very quietly about, for a mile before reaching the town we rode through gardens and orchards and over some sand hills, we got in at half past six o’clock. The country for twenty miles round Tangiers might if properly cleared and cultivated be one of the finest in the world, the Vales are wide and the hills not too high or steep to be ploughed to the top, nature has done a great deal for it and there


is plenty of good water, there is a great deal of lime stone and very rich iron stone many of the rocks sparkle purple in the sun. At Tangier we were kept at the gate till our guard went to the governor to ask permission for us to enter, he sent us all mud and dirt as we were to the British Consul general for the Empire of Morocco, Mr Drummond Hay?, he is an upsetting proud fellow and treated us with great incivility, which I hear is his usual custom, this was the Jews sabbath and they were all walking about in their best toggery, we went to the house of a Spanish Woman which we found very good, while they were getting supper ready we went onto the house top to look at the town but had been there a very few minutes before a tall Moor came up, in a great fury, because we might have seen into his house, I had to get the Spanish Woman to make an excuse for us, the Spaniards and Jews quaked and trembled before him as if they had expected to be executed, poor Bell had never ridden so far in his life before and was terribly tired-we slept soundly and clean. 8th We turned out in the morning with a Moor (calling himself Mr Shiriff, a great scamp) who we had engaged as our servant who could speak Spanish we did not require a Soldier here they are more accustomed to the Europeans; there are in Tangier 7,000 Moors, 2,000 Jews and above 200 Christian, this being Sunday all the Christian Consuls had the flag of their respective nations flying from the roofs of their houses, we counted eleven, many of their houses are very large and fine, we went to see the Gardens outside the town of the Swedish Spanish and Danish Consuls which are very beautiful and from six to eight acres each in size


The Christian burying ground is in one retired corner of the Swedish Consuls garden and is laid out with great taste. This was the market day at Tangier so we saw again great numbers of Camels and all sorts of merchandise, the thick silks made in the country of all gay colors, Morocco slippers, fruits etc etc. We saw the mint, such a place as a poor Village smithy with half a dozen fellows sitting on the ground running the metal into moulds to form their rude coin of which I have several sorts silver and copper for Mary Anne. In the evening after having a bathe in the Mediterranian we went to see the castle which is very large but not strong and walked for a considerable way along the sea banks out of the Town which have at a former time been all strongly fortified but seem to be now quite neglected, we were much pleased that we had gone to Tetuan as few Europeans go there and tho’ it is a nasty place it is much more strictly Moorish than Tangier the streets in the latter are wider and better paved, houses larger and better and every thing looks less savage than in the former. The Moors are the largest men I know except Germans and English, with very fine faces, clear complections not darker than the English and much whiter than Spaniards or French, high foreheads, fine liquid dark eyes, aquiline noses, not a vile Jew nose, and chins lost in the beards peculiar to the Moors; there are a great many dark men but they come from Fez, ?Meceuez/Mecerez/Mecenez, and Moroco and Negroes from Timbuctoo and Guinea; a slave is worth, when in good condition, about forty dollars but there are very few of them, labor is so cheap. The head is worn closely shaved below the white turban, the dress of the higher Moors is very splendid, frequently with a dark blue jacket like our lancers and a red trimmed vest and light blue under garments


the legs below the knee are always uncovered and yellow slippers without stockings; but when in the house or in the evening they frequently dress in a pure white robe of fine wool from head to foot, our Captain was in this dress but over all he had a blue cloak and hood, he carried across his horses shoulder a long gun in a red cloth cover wore a sword, and a fearful pair of spurs into which he put his feet slippers and all, the Horses in these parts have degenerated very much they shew considerable blood and shape but are very small and their action seemed bad but are much spoiled by the long and severe curb bits they are ridden with. Mules are greatly in use here as in Spain but for carrying heavy loads the Jimmel is always employed, there is not a wheel in all the country. In Tangier the women do not wear the face covered with the bandages as in Tetuan but cross a Vail over the face leaving a window for one eye as is the custom in Teriffa, here they walk more about and are frequently seen in the outskirts of the town and almost always uncover the face if none of their men are very near, they are of a perfectly alabaster white complection with dark hair and eyes, have a tattoo line from the under lip down the chin and throat and others form the eyes round the cheeks to the mouth, their faces are fine but have little expression, both men and women are grave and majestic in their deportment, the women dress in white, so wide as entirely to conceal the shape. The living in Barbary is much better than any thing I have seen in Spain, we had meat, fowls, game of many sorts, great quantities of fruit and very good wine something like Sherry and like Champaign and very fine bread, Mr Butler told us his family of eighteen


can live very well for a hundred a year, I believe his salary is only a hundred and fifty pounds a year. They have plenty of good clay in the country but their earthenware is very course and rough, their own country produces almost every thing that can be wished for and they have no prohibitions or 350 per cent taxes as in Spain and Portugal, they have an ad valorem duty of 10 per cent on every thing entering or leaving the country I should think there is no climate in the world more healthy and very favourable for Vegetation, if in good hands I am sure it might be made a grand country, and the Moors if they had education and Christianity would be a fine people, their trade with Gib is considerable the garrison is almost entirely supplied by them with beef mutton, pork, eggs and poultry, wool, silks and fruit are exported in considerable quantities. Sporting in Barbary is very good on the mountains the wild pigs are very plentiful and through all the country there are abundance of hares, partridge, quail and other birds I never saw before. While there Bell took several sketches of the most striking objects which he does with great ease, he is an excellent Frenchman but I have to do all the Spanish he wont try a word of it. 9th This day after visiting the Consul to have our passports signed etc, and settling with our several retainers we sailed in the Courier boat and after a good passage cast anchor in Gib bay at 2 o’clock but were kept there till 6 before we could get prattique(8) to land again in Europe, there are many other little circumstances which are not worth mentioning here, although being all so strange and new were very interesting and amusing to us at the time, altogether we were very much pleased, 10th After visiting a Mr Anderson


a considerable merchant, Bell and I rode to St Roche six miles off, then to the Cork wood six further, this wood extends for many miles and abounds with game of many sorts and the officers have often great sport with the wild boars, we wandered through the wood for several miles under the shade of fine oak and cork trees from which the long vine branches were hanging and sweet smelling flowers and shrubs growing underneath, we came to a hill where there is a convent and the ruins of an old Moorish Castle, we left our horses in the shade below and went into the Convent and asked an old Priest to let us rest and give us something to eat, he gave us bread and cessa do cabra (goat cheese) and a bottle of sweet wine which he had made in the wood and lots of oranges, in passing through the wood we heard the cuckoos talking, and here and there we heard a cock crow and stumbled on a lonely cottage built of wood and thatched with cork bark, our return was a little quickened by hearing a couple of balls whiz among the trees and the reports of two guns at no great distance, why they were fired we did not know and stopped to ask no questions but having a good cantering track before us we made off as fast as our Andelusians could carry us, robberies are not infrequent in that wood, only a week before we went to Gib two officers were returning from Rondo fair where they had gone to buy lambskin jackets they were taken by the Contrabandisters and not having enough to satisfy their captors one of them was sent home to bring 200 dollars as a ransom for his friend who was kept hostage for three days in the mountains till his return, but in the mean time he was treated with great kindness and as a companion except that he was strictly watched.


As we approached the rock it presented a very strange appearance, the wind was in the East which always brings damp weather, there were no clouds anywhere except on the top of the rock, from which large ones kept flying off, yet that on the top became no smaller, I can only account for it by supposing that the rock may act as a condenser and form clouds from the damp air I did not neglect to go and see the garrison fox hounds, which are rather a motley crew but they have had good sport which is the main point, it is now over. 11th We called on Mahamet Urzene and Hamnet Mustar to thank them for their kindness. We had a steep walk up the Mediteranian Stairs cut in the precipitous rock winding back and forward till they reach the top on the east side-we dined with Mr Haire./Haine? Rather a good joke happened last night, A Gib Smuggler went out and as soon as beyond range of fortress guns she was attacked by a Spanish Guarda Costa(Coast guard) both were well armed, the Smuggler carried eighty armed men and four swivels in her prow, and after a hard tussel for a few minutes the Smuggler beat the other and was going to disable her and proceed on her own business, but found that the Spaniard had no papers on board to authorize her from the Spanish government, she towed her into the bay and delivered her up to the governor, she will be treated as a pirate and the men probably transported. The Gib Smugglers are desperate chaps to deal with they fight hard, their boats can sail very fast and if like to be beaten they can pull forty oars with eighty men into the teeth of the wind and nothing can catch them. 12th This morning the Spanish Steamer ?“Il Baliar”/ Balier came in from


Cadiz bringing my old acquaintance ?Vermuhrm?/Vermchrm And Capt Delamaine, also a Government Steam packet from Malta some of the officers of which we knew so we spent the day together. 14th In the morning the Malta Packet set off on her return taking John Bell on his way to Cairo. In the evening at 8 o’clock I set of with Captain Delamaine in the Mercurio for Malaga there were 94 people aft and only beds for 30 I had to sleep on the deck under a tarpauling to keep off the night damp and the rays of the moon which in these latitudes is very dangerous while sleeping and often causes a sort of paralysis, my head luxuriated on a carpet bag which I cribbed, we reached Malaga at 6 o’clock A.M. of the 15th April and after waiting an hour for Pratique we landed and had breakfast we had several English men and some Frenchmen a young man ?Scape?Scafe from the north in the Queen’s service who had been unable to reach Madrid for some months to join his company, and a Mr Naukin of Liverpool, we hung out at Don Salvador’s Hotel and spent the day seeing the Cathedral the View from the top of which is very extensive and beautiful, the vine cultivation extends a great way up the sides of the hills which are green to the very summit, the Cathedral is a fine building but is in an unfinished state it was intended to have two high square towers in front only one of which has been built which looks very foolish and shews the decline of the Priesthood. The town is not good except a small portion near the harbour, it contains 70,000 Inhabitants except


in the wine and fruit trade the former chiefly to America the latter to England and both very considerable, there is little else doing at this port-the harbour is a small bay with pretty good quays and protected from the east by a curving pier. I visited Mr Mark our Consul to whom I had an introduction from Mr Lethbridge, he was very civil and wished me to stay longer , after dinner we went on board and set sail at 6pm, had a good passage and reached Almarea at 7 in the morning of the 16th where we remained on shore till 4 PM it is strongly walled but with few guns and none in order it seemed badly provided, within the walls about 20,000 and without 5,000 Inhabitants, the surrounding hills are high tipped with snow and altogether the most barren I ever saw there is no soil on the rock at all and nothing green to be seen but some aloes growing out of the crevices, there is a large quantity of lead worked in the district which is of good quality, in the bay there are only a few faluchas, it seemed altogether a poor place and little doing. 17th AM Cast anchor in the Bay of Carthagena at 6 AM but were kept from landing for two hours longer by the health officers, but we did not regret it the bay is very beautiful, the entrance is very narrow between high rocks, with several batteries on each side, the town is situated at the head of the bay which is a mile in length, in front stands a very large range of buildings which was in the days of Spanish glory the Naval College for Cadets and the Hospital for Seamen, both are now quite empty and are fast falling into ruin, at the left are the Dockyards the most famous in Spain, which we visited by an order from the Alealdea. The


accommodation for building large and numerous ships and for making every thing connected with shipping as well as for storing naval provisions is as good as anything I have seen. I think one of the basons is as large as London Dock, but there is not a workman in the yard, and only a few old rotten ships and masts, and some corroding guns and anchors the roofs of the Storehouses have fallen in and the basins are almost filled with mud, there are under a shed some very old gilded Barques which belonged to the Kings-we took a walk into the fields and picked Barley dead ripe, the country for some distance is good, on the land side the walls are very strong but not on the Bay side, when they expected to be attacked by ships they used to put great booms and strong chains across the mouth of the bay, but later experience has proved this plan useless-we scrambled up the ruins of a Moorish Castle which stands very high and commands the Bay and Town and has been of great strength, and from the top is a good view of the surrounding flat country. Here the men wear a linen kilt a Scotch plaid and ?sandelos/sandeles. In the morning thanks to our bad Spanish we were taken by mistake to the house of the Greek Consul instead of an Inn and were ordering breakfast and making ourselves at home and happy before we found out our mistake. We left at 6 in the evening and late at night doubled Cape Palos and once more set our faces to the North. 18th Landed at Alicante at 7 A.M. The Bay is very open and exposed, there is a long Mole running out for the convenience of Shipping, the Town contains 14,000 souls, some of the leading Streets are tolerably good and the houses large and well built


of fine sand stone. The Castle is outside the town and stands on a very high detached hill or rock to which the ascent is by steep twisting roads, it is thought the strongest fortification in Spain and strangers are seldom allowed to enter it but after paying our respects to the Governor he sent an officer to show us over it, they have accommodation for 5,000 men and it comprises five separate fortifications one within in another with drawbridges, and guns bearing upon every point from which an assault could be made, I should think it could only be taken by starvation. From the top the eye reaches for many miles, the country if possible more barren than that near Almerea, it looks like one vast fallow field not even a bud is able to grow, there is a large tobacco fabric in the town which in Spain are all in the hands of government. Here Mr Macullah left us he is an English man and American Consul and had been home to bring out a young wife from Ireland, they were very nice people. The Americans give no salary to their Consuls as we do but they have the perquisites of the office and are allowed to carry on trade which ours are not though they all do “sub rosa” in the name of a son or brother. We were joined by a Mr Braddell, merchant there, going home to see the Coronation of our Queen. We went on board at 5 pm, passed Cape de St Martin and reached the port of Valencia at 6 next morning and rode up to the Town two miles and a half in a sort of covered dog cart called a tartanno, the ride is very beautiful through a fine country like a garden among avenues of trees, mulberries, oranges, olives and many others and fine rich crops of corn. The Town is very good, the Streets clean and well kept, respectable houses and well furnished shops, there are many nice pleasure grounds gardens


and Hamardas??? filled with beautiful flowering trees and shrubs such as the almond, fig etc and all sorts of flowers, it is altogether a very pleasant place. The Cathedral is tolerably good, with several paintings, from the Spire we looked for a great distance over a flat and very rich country growing great quantities of fruit, it is well cultivated and all irrigated by water brought in cuts from the river at some distance up the country, by the time it reaches the Town it is almost empty, which makes the fine bridges look very foolish, from the top of the Cathedral we saw the camp of one of Don Carlos’ Generals with about 10,000 men, in the Town were a great number of the Queen’s troops and we saw a great many of the Carlist prisoners chained two and two mending the Streets etc. There seemed to be more active business here than in many other towns on this coast. Here one loses sight of the Moorish character in the buildings and the houses look more Northern with tiled roofs and windows that will shut. Here Rankin left us to remain for some time on business and Captain ?Scape/Scafe to try to make his way to Madrid. We left in the afternoon. 20th A.M. We reached Tarragona next morning but were only on shore for a few hours there is a pier which runs out for a great way and forms a tolerable shelter in the Bay which would otherwise have none from the South and East which is the most violent and dangerous wind on that coast. There is a new town by the sea which is pretty good and is increasing, the houses are large, the old town which is strongly walled but without a castle is a mile up the hill side, the Cathedral is not at all fine but is said to be the oldest in Spain, the round window


facing the sea is rather fine. The nut trade to England is great from this place, considerable quantities of corn are also exported to other parts of the coast less productive. We left at Noon and sailed close along Shore the country seemed more fertile than that further South and well sprinkled with trees, before reaching Barcelona a very high and curious hill presents itself the top of a ridge resembles the face of a Saw as the name Mon Serrato/Serrata? indicates, a rough topped hill is always called Sierra and a round top, monte or Montana, behind him is a range of snowy mountains a branch from the Pyrenees, from that part is to be seen the Castle of Mon Jewich (pronounced mon whe) the town is situated on low ground behind it and is not seen till the Vessel is almost entering the harbour which like most others on this coast is a bay and is well protected by a very long pier in a semicircular form, there is a great deal of Shipping in the port, and three English men of War besides French and others, which shews that the trade may need protection from the evils of a civil war, we landed late in the evening after having been kept for some hours for pratique, it is a great shame to keep a passage boat crowded with two hundred people so long when an officer could set them at liberty in five minutes. This town is far superior to any other I have seen in Spain and very little inferior to many in England. The Rambla much resembles the Italian Boulevard in Paris it is about a mile long and very wide with a row of trees at each side in front of the Houses. The Public buildings which are numerous are of a good character and well


built generally of white marble, other houses are of dressed stone and are large and uniform the Streets (except in the heart of the town which is very old) are wide and well kept, the very old houses are covered outside with paintings which look very curious. The Walls of the town are in good repair and to the land side flanked with strong works outside. The Citadel at the north of the town and near the sea is very strong and well provided. The town contains 160,000 inhabitants which is just the double of Vallencia, I know not how Inglis makes Vallencia one of the Capitals of Spain and not Barcelona for neither in size, trade or style is one to be compared to the other. The people here speak a language quite their own and dress differently from those of the South and much warmer clothing is worn the men wear jackets and a sort of carpet of red and yellow as a plaid and long red night caps which hang half way down the back-the dress of the women is a mixture between the Andelusian and the French, both the Mantilla and the bonnet are to be seen, they are taller and more slim than the Andelusians but not so good looking or so graceful. There are several good churches with painted windows but there are no paintings to be compared with those in the south. The Castle of Mon Jewich is well situated and well ordered but would not be very difficult to take, a thousand men could come to the edge of the foss before a gun could range upon them, and if they drop into the foss they are again safe till they scale the wall, there are very few men in it. We saw several English men prisoners there


who wished heartily to be back in Old England again, there was among many Spaniards a young Duke I don’t think he was above seventeen, it is sad to see so many fine young lads and gentlemen going about having lost legs, arms, etc etc. I knew a young lad about nineteen who had both legs shot off he was engaged to be married to a lady of rank, he offered to let her off the bargain but she would not hear of it and nursed him till he was able to stump about. We stumbled into a curious house called the Andeutia??? it is only opened once a year when some particular cases were tried, it is very ancient and of Moorish architecture and in the Hall are pictures of all the Spanish Kings they say since the year 200 (2re!!!) they are desperate old rum looking chaps any how. The Opera House is of a good size and generally well filled and the performances pretty by an Italian Company, but the house is very dirty and much out of repair, the native Spanish dancers and peculiar costumes are very pretty and amusing. We used to eat lots of ice which is made by means of fire (2re!!!) Well they dig a deep pit on the Mountains and fill it with snow and cover it over with brushwood which being set fire to melts the top snow the water runs down and congeals and so on for several times till it becomes such a hard mass that when well covered up it lasts through the heats of Summer and is taken out as it is required. We remained four nights in Barcelona and on the morning of the 24th again


raised steam. From Barcelona to Rosas as well as in the neighbourhood of the former is prettier than almost any I have seen in Spain it is well cultivated in parts not likely to be overrun by the contending armies or the numerous bands of plunderers, two days while we were in Barcelona we heard a firing kept up for a considerable time but it was only some skirmishing the main body of the Carlists were fifteen miles off. During this passage we called at five or six small towns or villages on the coast and reached the bay of Rosas in the evening which is very large but well sheltered from the North and East by Cape de Creux. The Town is very small situated between the Sea and the foot of the high hills which rise behind it, but there are remains of an old town which show it to have been at one time much larger also the ruins of a Castle build by the Romans which the French blew up when retreating from that district, all along this coast there are numerous snug small harbours sheltered among rocks. 25th April Left Rosas early in the morning and passing the end of the range of the Pyrenees entered the small and snug port of Port Vendre (by a very narrow entrance between two rocks) about 8 o’clock, very well satisfied that most of my sea work was over it is very clear I am never to make a good sailor. Old Mr Mas, Mr Durands Steward sent off to Perpignan to let the family know of my arrival, I breakfasted with his family at noon, I found our ship the Elizabeth Capt Morrison had arrived a few days before me, in the afternoon the Steamer left the port and the English passengers left by diligence to make


their way home through France, in the evening the Old gentleman and Eugene came in their carriage with two very nice horses, after spending all the day light in examining the Storehouses and wine we dined at Mr Mas’ and by the moon light took a walk to the Castle on the point of land at the entrance of the bay, the hills are high and steep, cultivated with vines to a great height, the town is very small and belongs almost entirely to Mr Durand. 26th Passed the forenoon among the Stores and work people and making arrangements for the shipment per Elizabeth, and in the afternoon drove home to Perpignan through the towns of Collioure and Elne, and through a very well cultivated and productive country, the excellence of the road was very striking after the long experience I had had of the rugged mule tracks in Spain and Portugal, we reached in time for dinner and I was introduced to a large circle, Old Mrs Durand a very kind motherly woman, the eldest son Justin and his pretty wife, both of whom were old acquaintances in Paris, Eugene is the second he is a turner and a very clever man with his hands, a Millwright, Joiner, Blacksmith and by boring has procured good supplies of water and rendered by irrigation some of his fathers estates of great value which formerly would not grow corn and for want of water Cattle could not live upon them he prides himself on the roughness of his hands , he says “I have the hand of a man” next come Mr Gassand and his wife Mr D’s eldest daughter and their daughter they belong to Marseilles but are generally at Perpignan M de la Souse and his wife the next daughter and their very pretty children he is a very nice man, the third daughter lives in the north and Mademoiselle ?Fanuse/Fanice/Famile


is still unmarried, no one of the family except Eugene speaks English so I am obliged to blunder on as best I can, every thing about the house is in the best style the dinners are quite French and I relished them very much after the feeding in Spain although I throve very well on the garlic and beans stewed in oil. The old lady is a good Catholic, but on Friday and Saturday she always takes care to have some thing nice in the flesh way for me, we were great friends she was very sorry that such a nice young man should not be in the right way. In the evening a great many visitors drop in and walk off at their pleasure with the greatest freedom-General Castilian/Castitan/Castitein?, the Superintending General of all the troops in that part of France calls every evening and a General St Joseph, Mr Jaume brother in law of Mr Durand and his two daughters (the eldest is married and a Doctor) Mr D’s brother and many others. The 1st of May being the Kings birthday or rather Saint day for in Catholic countries the day held in honour of the saint of the Same name is kept instead of the birthday of the person. The troops belonging to the garrison of Perpignan in number about 4,000 were reviewed in some nice ground outside the town, a great proportion of them were cavalry, the Dragoons and Chasseurs were as fine men as our guards, but as throughout all France, the Infantry are very small men, bands of music played in all the public walks till late in the evening. The General gave a splendid ball at night to which he invited me, the rooms were good and the company very large and numberless red trousers shewed we were in a garrison town Mr Jaume was very kind in helping me to partners for at first


I knew no one except his daughter la belle Marie, but very few of the French lasses are pretty the dancing was kept up till very late. Till the 7th of May I spent my time very pleasantly in their family visiting all their different estates and Stores which are very numerous and extensive, their crops and the manner of cultivation would do no discredit to Glendale, theirs were the first ploughs I had seen since leaving England with moldboards(9) to turn the soil over, Justin is the farmer, he and his Father understand it well, the latter took a great fancy to me because I could talk to him about his cattle and sheep, he is very free from prejudice and says when Eugene goes to England he must see the farming implements and customs and try to make improvements in their own, He is one of the finest old men I ever knew, he possesses great general knowledge, observation and activity of mind and body, with a most honorable and fine mind, I think the sweetest tempered and most amiable man in his family I ever met with, They are a very musical family the ladies play the piano and sing as is seldom heard off the stage, I felt sorry to leave the house and under the circumstances I was somewhat reconciled to the parting kiss from the gentlemen which we are apt to think rather barbarous. Perpignan is an old town well walled with red bricks and surrounded with fosses and has a Citadel of great strength there are pleasant walks and drives in the environs it contains about 30,000 people exclusive of the military. I saw the pointer which Charly carried to Newcastle he is a fine handsome dog but has not been broken so is a great fool, they have


some other good looking dogs but at that season the shooting was “defendu” but very badly defended I saw every day plenty of game in the market. Mr D has three carriages of different sorts and sizes his carriage horses are Normans and his saddle horses English but these are very rare in the South. 7th May Early in the morning which was very fine M Gassand and I started in the Diligence for Port Vendre to be ready for the Steamer from Barcelona to Marseilles but it had not come in that morning after the 12 o’clock breakfast M. G and I started to walk to Banyuls a small sea port Village at the foot of the Pyrenees where a very rich wine is grown it is very ?relied/relived and pretty the inhabitants are all smugglers the(sic) carry corn from the south of France to the coast of Spain and bribe the Customs Officers to let them land it which is always easily done, our road lay for several miles over high hills and the day being very hot we walked without our coats, but we preferred returning by sea in a small boat. 8th The Spanish Steamer el Mercurio came in during the fore noon but was prevented taking in her supply of coals by a heavy fall of rain so we did not get off till near evening, all the boats passing take coal there they find it suit them well it is of our sending out from ?Seghill We had some English and some Spaniards whom I had known in Cadiz especially Mr Larios a young Spaniard of high family. The Gulf was very rough and uncomfortable. 9th Reached Marseilles in the fore noon and remained till the 13th The Town is large


with good and well built houses and looks more like business than anything I have seen since leaving London the Streets are wide and well paved. The Harbour is very small and confined for the Shipping, it is more like a dock than a port, the entrance is by a very narrow inlet and the whole is enclosed in Quay walls and surrounded by offices warehouses etc. Except having to see several persons on business, I had little to do here, there is nothing to see no public places or antiquities, but there was a very tolerable Italian Company at the Theatre every evening which afforded us good amusement, the House itself is nothing particular. The Castle of Notre Dame de la Garde commands a view of all the surrounding country which is not extensive for the neighbourhood is hilly, the Lazaretto is at the further side of the bay on a barren piece of ground , the quarantine station is in a small bay in a little island or rock about two miles to sea. 13th I started early in the morning for Toulon by Diligence, the roads are as good as any in England, made of fine stone but the travelling is infamous, we were 8 ½ hours by day light in going not more than 30 miles the country is not nearly so fine as Roussillon chiefly rocky barren hills growing fir trees and vine and corn cultivation in the hollows, a few miles before reaching Toulon the road winds down a glen for a considerable distance with precipitous rocks on each side many hundred feet high at the bottom it is frequently so narrow that a place has been scooped out for the road. Toulon is not a bad town but there is nothing


doing except what is connected with the Navy, it is the Portsmouth of France The Arsenal is very extensive and well ordered the work that is going on is of course the same as in other places of the same sort, things are perhaps kept smarter and more showey than in England but there did not seem to be so much real work going forward, they have room for twenty five frigates besides smaller vessels in the basons, the Port is very large and well sheltered the entrance is by a small strait to the east, I did not see a merchantman there is no trade except for provisions and coal for the Governments Steamers which are numerous. I crossed the Bay which is four miles wide to the Naval Hospital it is large and well arranged with pretty grounds about it, but there were very few invalides in it. The town of Toulon is strong and well walled there are good walks and pleasure grounds and gardens in the neighbourhood. 14th I left at dusk in the evening and reached Marseilles in the morning, we were ten hours- here I amused myself for four days longer the Diligences being all filled for some days. 18th May I left at 5 o’clock in the morning per diligence which brought us through a low swampy country by the sides of lakes and over arms of the Sea, to a small town on the coast called Bouges, where we got into a wood house and were drayed (11) up the Canal of Arles to the Town of that name, we accomplished it at a trot in four hours and reached at 5 P.M.


This part of the country is very good and chiefly growing corn. This is a very pretty and prettily situated little town, we again took diligence but were detained for half an hour till something was repaired about a bridge over one of the branches of the Rhone the workmen had been engaged putting the Theatre in order so the bridge on the great road had been neglected, the country is flat and well cultivated from this to Nismes watered by several of the branches of the river from which this province takes its names “Les Bouches du Rhone” we alighted at Nismes a little after dark, and put up at a very large and comfortable house. 19th This is a place full of antiquities and interest. I first hired a carriage and went to see the wonderful piece of ancient architecture, The Pont du Gard, which crosses the Valley of the river Gardon formerly called Gard, it is situated about twelve miles to the north east of Nismes, between the chateau of St Privat and the village Remoulins, passing up the side of the river on each side of which the hills rise very abruptly, the bridge has a very imposing appearance, appearing like a tremendous barrier across the Valley, it is composed of three tiers of arches placed one above another, the first or lowest bridge consists of six arches through which the water of the river flows and along which the high road passes it being on a level with the banks of the river this is 66 feet high and 402 long-above this rises the second bridge formed by eleven arches of about 65 feet in height, five of the piers correspond with those of the lower bridge from which


they rise the length of this is about 850 feet, above this again rises the third bridge the arches of which are much smaller being only about 25 feet high and 15 feet wide they are in number thirty five and the length of this tier is ..blank…..feet the whole height of the structure above the water is …blank…feet, the object in building this was to conduct water across this Valley to the town of Nismes, above the highest arches is an aquaduct of four feet wide and five deep covered with long flat stones and lined with cement which had been coated over with red paint to render it less pervious to the water, except this part the whole of this great edifice is built with large blocks of stones placed upon and fitted to each other without any mortar or cement whatever, the stone is a coarse granite, the upper part is now going to decay and some of the end arches are broken down, the water was formerly brought from two large fountains at a great distance Page 124 the remains of the aquaduct are still discernible in some parts of the country. This erection is said to have been begun by Marcus Agrippa son in law of Augustus (who was sent to govern the colony and check the movements of the Gauls) in the year of Rome 735 or 19 years before the birth of Christ and finished in the year 750; and that the principal expense of the building was defrayed by the Colony which was one of the richest of the Roman possessions. Until the beginning of the 17th century it was used only as an aquaduct but the Duc de Rohan wishing to pass over his artillery to assist the religionists at Nismes caused the lower sides of the piers of the second bridge to be scooped out so as to allow of a passage over the first bridge, and at a later period the lowest bridge was widened for this purpose and the piers of the other repaired so as not to endanger the structure this was finished about the year of Christ 1747. The “Tour Magne” is probably one of the most ancient buildings connected with this City and takes its name from its great strength and its adaption for standing an attack, its situation was the most climated and exposed on the ancient wall of the City it is now quite in a state of ruin. It is built something in the shape of a Pyramid, the lower part had seven faces and the higher part eight but the faces are not equal in width, and throughout there is no regularity in the building, what yet remains of the Tower is in


height about 70 feet. L’Amphitheatre Almost every Roman town or City of any importance had its Amphitheatre for holding the public games and witnessing the combats of wild beasts, few of these buildings now remain at all perfect but this at Nismes is still in tolerable preservation which as well as it having been originally on a very large scale renders it deserving of notice. The form of this structure like most others of the same sort is Oval which was thought the best form for giving to all the spectators a view of the exercises, the greatest diameter is from East to West about 440 feet, and the smallest from the South to the North about 350 feet, the circumference of the exterior of the building is about 1220 feet and the height 70 feet. Through the ground floor open sixty arched passages at equal distances from each other leading to the interior of the Amphitheatre, they are very high and ornamental with mason work, in the second story there are a


corresponding number of arches to those in the lower and exactly above them these arches are adorned with pillars of the Tuscan order. Surmounting the second story is a third which is a sort of crown work, plain without arches or pillars to finish off the building, round the top of this is a very broad walk where many people may walk with perfect safety. In the Interior the building slopes backwards from the base to the top being done round with stone seats staircases etc capable of containing Twenty three thousand persons allowing sixteen inches for each person; below the building is a passage with a great number of caves for the purpose of containing the beasts for the fights and the captives who were to be destroied-this building is of a reddish sand stone and is altogether a splendid structure, it is entirely built without mortar and the large blocks of stone are clasped together with bars of iron run in with lead. The Maison Carree is one of the most beautiful of the ancient structures it is the only remaining part of the ancient? Roman Forum and formed the centre, the two large wings which extended on each side and advanced in front forming three sides of a square are now quite gone, the exterior of this is 25 yards without but within only 16 yards long and 12 in width and height. There is a great deal of exquisite sculpture, and statues of Romans, Gladiators etc.


The Temple of Diana is now in a state of ruins but retains many traces of its former beauty the stone of which it is constructed is very fine and takes a polish equal to marble it is also built without lime; in the interior are collected great numbers of broken pillars and capitals and fragments of statues beautifully worked, this ruin is beautifully situated in nicely laid out grounds and gardens close to which are the Fountains which are the most extensive I have ever seen, they are built of marble and finely dressed stone and the supply of water is very great. Besides these you find in every part of the town some ancient and curious remains, on the leading roads from the Town are strong gateways, particularly Port d’Auguste and La Porte de France; there are remains of Mosaique pavements, Tombs of Marcus Atticus and others, fragments of fine buildings and of statues sculpture etc etc. besides all these subjects of interest it is a pretty town and in a very fine country. May 20th 1838 I left Nismes in the afternoon and reached Montpellier the same evening it is a very nice town and of considerable size, containing about 35,000 inhabitants, besides the garrison, it used to be much frequented by English seeking health, but is now deserted for Pau and more Western situations, many of the Streets are


very good and many new houses seem to be in progress, the Esplanade at the outskirts and raised higher than the town, is laid out with great taste with pleasure grounds and at the further end a very elegant sort of Temple and fountains, the water which plays through these is brought from some distance on an aquaduct of two tiers of arches, and after having been made ornamental it passes on to the town to be made useful. I remained here over the following day to see M. Achille Durand a cousin of my friends at Perpignan; also a very pleasant man, I left with him on the forenoon of the 22nd in his carriage for Cette which is the seaport of Montpellier it lies about fourteen miles distant, the merchants all live at the latter place as Cette is unhealthy from its low and swampy situation on the coast and being so eaten up by mosquitoes, as we passed along the heights we observed several large heaps of salt on the coast like great lime heaps, it is manufactured to a great extent here, we passed through a Village called Frontignan where a very sweet white wine is grown which is known by the same name. Cette is one of the most wicked places in the way of wine making, it contains about 10,000 souls and carries on a considerable trade with America and Mauritius. A Canal passes from the sea through the town in which the ships lie, and the canal of Languadoc passes on the land side, on which I started at 5 next morning in a small steamer


to cross the lake of Agde which is some miles in extent, after which we took the canal boat and progressed through a fine country to Beziers which we reached at noon and stopped to breakfast while they changed boats to save climbing up ten or twelve locks which are in close succession there, we then passed through rather a flat but highly cultivated and productive country passing the town of Narbonne and its high church at some distance, this is the place that in ancient times used to be so famous for its bees and honey, but I thought it too mild and rather insipid and would have been improved by a mixture of our heather honey, we reached Carcassonne after midnight quite tired of the slowness of the boat and its stopping at all the sluices, I and another gentleman left it and remained the next day to see the town and neighbourhood which are both very pretty, the town more so than any I have seen in France, that day was the’ fete de la faux’ and all the young lads and lasses were dressed in their best with ribbons, carrying scythes and rakes, singing songs and dancing in the market place which is a pretty square full of fine trees, the Prefet of the town rode among them with his wife or daughter or whatever she might be, making pretence of hireing them; it was also a saint day and all the young girls who take the sacrament for the first time are entirely dressed in white, the womens caps here are very pretty, large white with full frills


which looks like a crown on the head. We came on to Toulouse by diligence it is a large town of 80,000 inhabitants and very old and bad, miserable houses and narrow twisting streets, during two days which I remained I was with M.Sennighieu??? a merchant and M. La Souse son in law of M. Durand and was staying at Perpignan while I was there, he was very kind shewed me the Museum, Jardin des plantes, Hotel de Ville, Churches etc which after those in Spain look very poor, the fighting grounds outside the town where Soulte and Wellington had such hard work-received letters from home. From this place I proposed going by Pau and Bayonne to Bordeaux which would have shewn me one of the finest districts of France, but time was running on and I left Toulouse on the evening of the 26th May per diligence for Bordeaux which I reached in twenty four hours, we passed through very fine country and reached Agen in the morning and might have taken Steam down the Garronne for the remainder of the way but wished rather to see the country and cultivation, this vale by Marmande and Langon where we crossed the river by a good bridge is amazingly rich growing fine crops of corn and clover and vines. I have now seen a good deal of the Midi of France from West to East and throughout one cannot imagine a richer or more productive or more highly cultivated country, although by no means beautiful. In England most people are generally greatly mistaken with regard to Spain and its natural capabilities compared with those of France. Spain


is certainly much the more romantic and beautiful country but with the exception of narrow and fertile vales it is generally wild mountainous and rugged it is true that in the interior there are extensive tracts of flat country but even that is at so high a level that during the cold and wet season it is of little value. As far as I have had an opportunity of judging, as an agricultural country it is no more to be compared to the South of France than Rimside/Rimsich? moor to the Vale of the Tweed, but Spain has the advantage over France of being possessed of minerals of many discriptions which were the country in a quick and healthy state would be great sources of wealth. May 28th Called on Mr Brand Scott the Consul with the Archdeacon’s letter, and he on me with Mr Judd his brotherinlaw whom I knew in London, a merchant also brotherinlaw to Johnston the principal English merchant in Bordeaux. Mr David Johnston is mayor of the town this year which is rather curious for an Englishman, but he was born here and is naturalised; This is an exceedingly fine town next to Paris the finest I have seen on the Continent; it has nothing so splendid as some of the gardens in Paris or some of its finest Structures, but here the streets and houses are all good and no part of the town is so bad as great parts of Paris, and the Gironde is a much finer river than the Seine at Paris, the quays are very good and extensive and the shipping in the river considerable, it is crossed by a good bridge of recent construction which is rather


curious, the body of it instead of being solid is arched, two rows running length ways, and great numbers across; I walked through them; the carriages and carts passing above make a thundering rumbling noise. Besides the general aspect of the town there is little that is remarkably striking or worthy of notice, it has, like other French towns, its gardens, museum, Seminary (which is very large) . Boulvards, Esplanades etc. the Theatre is a very tolerable house and well filled and possesses a mediocre French Opera company, the Stone of which the town is built is a very pretty sand stone which dresses well and looks clean, the population is about 120,000 which is 30,000 less than Marseilles, the business done here is much smaller and is yearly falling off, while the other is increasing fast being better situated for trade with the east and Africa. 30th I went with Mr Judd to see Nathanial Johnstons Wine concerns which are very extensive and good and unlike what I had seen in the South dined at 7o’clock with Mr Scott and met his mother who was one of the Ogle’s of Kirkley, his sister, Miss Scott, Judd and Mr Baston (also a large wine merchant) with their wives both sisters of Scotts. Mr S. is a sensible gentlemanly young man but stiff and formal like all these consuls, instead of asking one to come that day or the next and take “pot luck” they give one a formal invitation for some distant day just when you intend leaving, then when they get a little acquainted with you they reckon they are sorry that your stay is so short etc etc. 31st After having called on Judd, the Consul and others I started by the Malle Poste, crossing the bridge and passed some very fine country better wooded


and prettier than usual, till we reached the river Dordogne, which we were half an hour in crossing, diligence and all, in a boat, upon which there was a gin, turned by six horses which turned the paddles, after landing, further time was lost in changing horses as the harness had to be taken off one set and put on the other, they are making a chain bridge across the river supported by seven piers in the water it is seventy feet above the level of the water to allow the vessels to pass underneath, early in the morning we reached Saintes on the river Cherente which is crossed by an exceedingly curious old bridge with a tower on the middle of it, we still continued on the south side and some miles lower crossed the same river by a ferry at the town of Cherente where they ship all the good brandy from the town of Cognac, from which it takes its name, the river is here more like a canal and has depth enough for brigs of three hundred Tons, the town is small(about 3,000) but stands prettily among trees. A league further we came to Rochefort, a small town fortified and garrisoned, there are also Dockyards, arsenal, Naval hospital etc. I observed several ships on the stocks but they were all old ones; in the afternoon we passed on and in the evening reached La Rochelle, a considerable town also in the brandy trade, it has been well walled and fortified but they are now crumbling in many parts; there is no river but the bay and docks brought into the town, and the shipping seems to be chiefly from the north of Europe and Yankey. The country from this to Rochefort is flat and rather swampy and in old pasture, which is well stocked with cattle and cows


most of which however were very bad, like the worst sort of black and white kiloes(12) we have, the women here wear a terribly high casque by way of a cap, larger and higher than our grenadiers caps. Left La Rochelle next day and passing through Bourbon la roche, along a country of no interest and through several poor and bad towns reached Nantes next forenoon; and being Sunday I could not see the merchants to whom I had letters, so I remained till Monday evening; the town is large (90,000) and the houses and streets very good and well built and of good stone and kept tolerably clean; the Loire divides into four branches all of which pass through the town, there is a great deal of shipping but chiefly small. Vinegar is the chief export and manufacture of this town. I found that one of the gentleman to whom I had an introduction was a young man I had been with for some time in Spain but I never knew where he lived. 4th June I left Nantes in the evening by a Paris diligence for Angers on the Sarthe a little above its junction with the Loire, which we reached at ½ past 4 o’clock next morning, the people at the office insisted that there was no diligence for Tours till six at night, but after knocking up the people at their offices and getting myself well growled at, I found one which started in an hour, they took us up the bank of the river for some hours then crossed over for nearly a mile to the South, to Saumers, and direct back again for the purpose of giving us some breakfast and shewing us a splendid new bridge over the river, we again crossed the river to the south to reach the Town of Tours just before dark. The


Vale of the Loire is one of the finest parts of France, up to Angers it is a fine broad corn-growing country, from that by Saumer to Tours is very thickly wooded, good and “ornament” wood not like most of that on the Paris roads, yet it is not forest, for it is well mixed with patches of corn old meadows, and numbers of orchards, the barley here is ripe. We pass up the north bank of the river which winds among woods and is studded with chains of green islands which gives it the appearance of a double river, and at Tours is as large as the Thames at London, there are Steamers running regularly as high as Orleans, , but in ascending they march slowly as the river is at present flooded from the quantity of rain which has fallen of late. For some distance before reaching Tours a steep sandstone rock runs up the road side, out of which the people excavate their houses and make a staircase up the rock to their upper rooms and bore a hole out for the “reek”. The approach to the town is very pretty it seems as if it stood upon the water and the bridges and churches are seen peeping through among the tall poplars of which there are a great number. The town is filled with English families who want to live quietly and cheaply. From Nantes I had thought of going through Britagne by Saint Malo and Jersey to England but was not sure that it might not be necessary to see Adolphe in Paris. June 6th I left Tours in the evening and continued up the Loire for some time, passing Blois and reached Orleans at half past four A.M. I wished to have gone from there to


Fontainbleau but found there was no “enterprise” of Diligence on that road, so I continued with the same, the town of Orleans requires no remark and the country after leaving the Loire is much poorer and more open, chiefly growing corn, reached Paris on the evening of the 7th and found it as it used to be, the town and my old quarters at Meurice’s Hotel very full of English, I only remained two days as there was nothing new to me, visited my friends and looked through the Louvre and some of the objects of which one can never tire. June 10th I started by diligence in the morning for Calais taking the road by Amiens, St Pol and St Omer as I had travelled all the other roads before, this is much prettier than the Beauvais, Abbeville and Boulogne road, St Omer is a very pretty town, all the towns of any extent are fortified, I reached Calais on the evening of the 11th and staid as usual at Robert’s, till next afternoon when I sailed for Dover which I found very much increased and improved since I had last seen it, left at night by the Mail and reached London at 6 o’clock of the morning of the 13th June the worst of all hours to enter London as it is not worth while going to a nasty Bull in Mouth bed and not the ghost of a Londoner is up to get you anything.

Page 27 (2) Portuguese civil war 1828 to 1834. The heir to the throne Pedro of Brazil revised the constitution bringing in liberal reforms. The church and landowners who wanted to keep their power, and were alarmed by the liberal reforms supported his brother Miguel. Miguel abolished the parliament and arrested the liberals. Porto rebelled and backed Pedro. Pedro backed by Spain and England, landed in Porto in 1832. Having won the war he closed all the religious houses.

Page 50 (5) Fenton, village near Milfield or 6 miles near Brampton. It could refer to either.
Page 31 (3) The butt (from the medieval French and Italian botte) or pipe is an old English unit of wine casks, holding two hogsheads (approximately 475 to 480 litres).

George Annett Grey's Diaries: Journey 3, 1838 January 7 to June 13 Pages 20- 136 Portugal

London, Exeter, Shaftesbury, Dorset ,Somerset, Devon, Plymouth, Devonport , Falmouth, (By sea to Portugal) Bay of Biscay, Vigo Bay, Oporto, Tras os Montes, Minho (district) Vollongo, (to East of Oporto) Penafiel (inland from Oporto) Amarante, (further inland) Quinantilha (in Minho) Ragua ( south of Matteus) Mesao Frio, Ragua, Villa Real, Oporto, Foz, (now suburb of Oporto,. Lessa ( could be Leca?)) Oporto, Viana, Valenca, ( in Minho) Rock of Lisbon, Fort St Julian, Belam, Quinta Moita Pelmella Moita Cinta (Spain): Cadiz, Rota, Sanlucar, Seville, Alcalea, Xeres, Cadiz, Tarifa, Gibralta, (Africa): Tetuan, Ceuta, Tangiers, (Spain) Gibralta, St Roche, (Port of Gibralta), Malaga, Almeria, Alicante Valencia, Tarragona, Barcelona, Rosas, Cape de Creus, (France): Port Vendres Perpignon, Collioure, ?Elne, Perpignon, Port Vendres, (Spain) Barcelona, (France) Marseilles, Banyuls, Marseilles, Toulon, ?Bouges, Pont de Garde, Nimes, Montpiellier, Sete,(Cette) Beziers, Narbonne, Carcassonne ,Toulouse, Bordeaux, Agen, Marmande, Dordogne(district), Saintes, Rochefort, La Rochelle, Nantes, Angers, Saumur, Tours, Blois, Paris, Calais, Dover, London.

Page 65 (6) Gin: Ground level horizontal circular treadmill.
Page 89 (7)Spencer: short double breasted coat or jacket.
Page 104 (8) prattique: Pratique is the license given to a ship to enter port on assurance from the captain to convince the authorities that she is free from contagious disease.
Page 118 (9) " Moldboard: To grow crops regularly in less fertile areas, the soil must be turned to bring nutrients to the surface. A major advance was the mouldboard plough (American spelling: moldboard plow; or turnplough, frame-plough), which not only cuts furrows with a share (cutting blade) but turns the soil." Wikipedia
Page 119 (10)Seghill : a colliery town north of Newcastle, near Seaton Delaval.
Page 121. (11) drayed:To haul by means of a low, heavy sideless cart.
Page 134. (12)Kyloes: Highland cattle or kyloe are a Scottish breed of cattle with long horns and long wavy coats which are coloured black, brindled, red, yellow or dun. Wikipedia
Bull in Mouth: Celebrated City Inn.
For Journey 4 1839 October 5 to November 20